Whenever a stop and a sigma come together, the square of Stop applies.
What is Noun rule number 8?
A tau cannot stand at the end of a word; it will drop off.
In personal Pronouns, what are the 3 classes of person?
1st person: refers to the speaker(s)
2nd person: refers to the one(s) spoken to
3rd person: refers to the one(s) spoken about
What is the First Person Paradigm?
What is the Second Person (Personal Pronoun) Paradigm?
What are the 3 different ways autos is used?
1 - As the 3rd person personal pronoun
2 - Intensively, in place of the reflexive pronoun
3 - As the identical adjective ("same")
What is the third personal pronoun?
autos is the third personal pronoun.
What is the Singular Paradigm of autos?
Autos is the 3rd personal Pronoun
What is the plural paradigm of autos?
How do you translate autos when it is as a personal pronoun?
autos - he autoi - they
autn - she autai - they
auto - it auta - they
How do you translate autos when it is adjectival intensive.
Translate with the reflexive pronoun based on the natural gender of the word modified:
himself, herself, itself, myself, themselves, etc.
How do you translate autos when it is used as the identical Adjective?
What are the Greek Demonstratives and their lexical meaning?
Outos - this/he/she/it (sing) or These/they (plural)
Ekeivos - that (man/woman/thing) [sing] or Those (men/women/things) [plural)
What is the Paradigm of outos singular?
What is the Paradigm of outos plural?
What is the Paradigm of ekeivos singular?
What is the Paradigm of ekeivos plural?
What position will a demonstrative pronoun appear in when used as an adjective?
They appear in the predicate position (Though they behave just like other pronouns and adjectives)
How is the demostrative translated as a pronoun?
As a pronoun, the translation of the demostrative may require an additional word such as those in the parentheses.
i.e. ekeivn would be "that (man)"
How is a demonstrative translated as an adjective?
If a demostrative is functioning as an adjective, it occurs in the predicate position although it functions as an attributive adjective.
i.e. outos o avQpwIIos (anthropos) - This man
What are the relative pronouns in English?
who, whom, which, that and whose
(Relative pronouns are used to connect a dependent clause to another word, phrase, or clause by indicating the relationship of one person, place, or thing to another.)
What is the relative pronoun in Greek?
How do you translate a relative clause (pronoun) when it is used as a substantive (subject, object, or complement, etc.)?
the one who; he who; those who; you who, etc).
It is necessary to add a pronoun in front (as seen above) so that it is subordinate to something.
How do you translate a relative clause (pronoun) when it is used to modify a word?
simply use "who," "which," or "that."
What is the relative pronoun Paradigm singular?
What is the relative pronoun paradigm plural?
What is the 1st Aorist Passive Paradigm?
Notice the epsilon in front and the Theta for 1st Aorist
What is the 2nd Aorist Passive Paradigm?
What is the 1st future passive Paradigm?
What is the 2nd Future Passive Paradigm?
What does the passive voice express?
something done to the subject by a third party.
i.e. He (subject)was wanted (passive voice) by the police (third Party).
How do you translate aorist passive voice in past tense?
by using the helping verb "was/were" plus the past participle to translate the aorist passive.
i.e. He was wanted by the police.
How do you the passive voice in future tense?
by normally using the helping verbs "will" and "be" plust the past participle to translate the future passive.
i.e. I will be wanted by the police, if I don't keep the law.
How can you tell the difference between first and second aorist passive and first and second future passives?
* - 1st and 2nd Aorist have the have epsilon in front and future doesn't.
* - 1st Aorist has a theta-eta combo
2nd aorist only has the eta in the middle
* - 1st Future has a theta-eta-sigma in the middle
2nd future only has the eta-sigma
What is the Paradigm for the Perfect Active Indicative?
What is the Paradigm for the Middle/Passive Indicative?
How do you transltate Perfect Actives?
The perfect is translated using the helping verb "has/have" plus the past participle" (This is if the emphasis is on the fact of the past completed action)
i.e. I have learned
If the emphasis is onthe present resulting effect or state, the present tense is used.
i.e. I am standing at the door and knocking"
How is the perfect Middle Voice Indicative translated?
In the middle voice the subject acts on the direct object in a way that affects itself.
This is usually translated "for-self/selves"
What are the five rules of Reduplication?
2 - Consonantal with aspirate stops
3 - Consonant Clusters
4 - Vocalic
5 - Compound verbs
In the rules for reduplication what is rule 1 Consonantal?
An initial consonant is reduplicated with an e (epsilon) in between
In the rules for reduplication what is rule2 Consonantal with aspirate stops
an aspirate stop is reduplicated wih its corresponding voiceless stop plus e (epsilon)
In the rules for reduplication what is rule 3 Consonant Cluster?
Only e (epsilon) is prefixed, except when lambda or row is the second consonant.
In the rules for reduplication what is rule 4 Vocalic?
An initial vowel or diphthong is lengthened (only the first vowel)
In the rules for reduplication what is rule 5 Compound verbs?
Only the verbal part of the compound verb is reduplicated.
How does the second perfect differ from the first perfect?
and what are the five verbs with 2nd perfect forms?
There is a Changed stem, and the tense formative is a (alpha) alone instead of ka (kappa-alpha)
What are the 3 different ways in which the middle voice can be translated, depending on the context or on whether the verb is deponent.
1 - The classical definition: The action of a verb in the middle voice in some way affects the subject.
2 - The Self-interest nuance - is not necessarily a reflexive idea, though it can be similar. (The reflexive pronoun is usually required where the subject acts on itself) i.e. I obtain (for myself) or I dip myself.
3 - In the middle voice the subject acts on the direct object in a way that affects itself. i.e. "for-self/selves."
What are the primary significance in the aspect of participles? (3 aspects)
1 - Present Tense - continous aspect
2 - Aorist Tense - undefined aspect (statement of fact)
3 - Perfect Tense - completed aspect
What is the difference between adverbial and adjectival participles?
As Verb they have tense and voice
As Adjectives, they have case, Number, gender
As Verb - never preceded by and article
As Adjective - may be preceded by an article
* attributive (usually preceded by article)
*predicative (never preceded by article)
* substantive (usually preceded by article)
What are the 3 Morhpemes for participles?
What is the pattern of declension for each different voice for participles?
What is the paradigm for the Present Participle of eimi Plural?
What is the paradigm for the Present Participle of eimi singular?
This is also the endings for the present active paradigm.
What is the Paradigm for the Present Active participle of Luw Singular?
What is the Paradigm for the Present Active participle of Luw Plural?
What is the Paradigm for the Present Middle/Passive Participle of Luw Singular?
What is the Paradigm for the Present Middle/Passive Participle of Luw Plural?
What are the 4 questions to ask before translating a participle?
1 - What is the aspect (based on tense)?
2 - What is the voice?
3 - What is its meaning (based on lexical form, case, number, and gender)?
4 - What is its funcion in the sentence?
A) What is the Basic Translation of the present particple?
B) How are most advervial participles translated?
A) ending in -ing in English
B) most adverbial participles are best translated as temporal or Causal clauses.
Regarding Translating Relative Time
The temporal adverb (e.g. "while") and the aspect of the particple (continous) derive from the tense of the participle (present).
but the time of the action of the participle derives from the tense of the verb.
The participle forms a temporal clause in translation by adding a subject to it.
What are some examples of this?
Regarding Translating Relative Time
The Temporal Adverb (e.g. "while") and the aspect of the participle (continous) derive from what?
the tense of the participle (present)
Regarding Translating Relative Time
the time of the action of the participle derives from what?
the tense of the verb
Regarding Translating Time
The participle forms a temporal clause in translation by adding what?
a subject to the participle
Adverbial Aorist Participles
What is the 1st Aorist Active Paradigm Singular luw?
Adverbial Aorist Participles
What is the 1st Aorist Active Participle Paradigm Plural of Luw?
What is the 1st Aorist Middle Participle of Luw Singular?
What is the 1st Aorist Middle Participle of Luw Plural?
What is the 1st Aorist Passive Participle of Luw Singular?
What is the 1st Aorist Passive Participle of Luw plural?
What is the 2nd Aorist Active Participle of Ballw Singular?
What is the 2nd Aorist Active Participle of Ballw Plural?
What is the 2nd Aorist Middle Participle of Ballw Singular?
What is the 2nd Aorist Middle Participle of Ballw Plural?
What are some examples of how to translate Adverbial Participles?
"having loosed" or " after he had loosed"
What do Adjectival Participles modify?
a noun or pronoun, or function like a substantive
What do attributive participles modify?
they modify a subsantive and must agree with it in case, number, and gender.
How do Substantive participles function?
they function like a noun or pronoun;
they are normally articular
their case is determined by their function
while their number and gender reflect that of the noun or pronoun they are representing
What is the basic translation using the English participle with an attributive participle.
who is loosing --
frequently the use of a relative clause
How may Substantival participles be translated?
as nouns, but more often they are better translated with a substantivized relative clause
i.e. "The one who is loosing"
What are the combinations of translation for Relative Time for attributive participles?
and what is it indicated by?
What are the 8 questions to ask when translating participles?