Psych. Ch.2

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amontobin
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67728
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Psych. Ch.2
Updated:
2011-02-20 21:35:20
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psych
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Test 1
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  1. Divisions of the Nervous System: (2 main parts)
    • 1. Central Nervous System
    • 2. Peripheral Nervous System
  2. CNS is composed of:
    • 1. Brain
    • -Processes info
    • 2. Spinal Chord
    • -Carries info (nerve impulses) between brain & body
  3. PNS is composed of:
    • 1. Somatic system
    • Controls voluntary skeletal muscle movement (muscles attatched to bone)
    • 2. Autonomic system
    • Controls involuntary smooth muscle movement (muscles in glands & organs)
    • Made of 2 systems
  4. Autonomic System is made of
    • 1. Sympathetic system
    • Arouses body & mobilizes resources
    • 2. Parasympathetic system
    • Calms body & conserves resources
  5. Cells of the Nervous System:
    • 1 Receptor cells
    • 2 Effector cells
    • 3 Neurons
    • 4 Glial cells
  6. 1)Receptor cells
    • Respond to environmental stimulation
    • Located in sense organs
  7. 2) Effector cells
    • Stimulate muscle contractions
    • Located in all muscles
  8. 3) Neurons
    • Basic nerve cell type
    • Make up most of nervous system
  9. 4) Glial cells
    • Sticky, "glue-like" cells
    • Support, insulate, nourish other cells
  10. What is neuron type determined by?
    The direction in which it carries nerve impulses
  11. Types of Neurons:
    • 1) Sensory neurons- Carry nerve impulses from the body into the CNS
    • 2) Motor neurons- From the CNS back out to the body
    • 3) Inter-neurons- Carry nerve impulses within the CNS
  12. Neuron Anatomy: (know well)
    • Dendrites- Branch-like structures that connect to & recieve messages from other neurons
    • Soma- The cell body of the neuron
    • Axon- Tube structure that carries the neural message to other cells
    • End Bulb
    • Synapse- Tiny fluid-filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell & the dendrites of the next cell (many drugs cause changes here)
  13. Divisions of the Brain: (3 regions)
    • Brainstem (bottom region)
    • Limbic System (middle)
    • Forebrain (top)
  14. 1) Brainstem is made of:
    • Medulla -controls vital life functions
    • Pons -soordinates movement of left & right side of body
    • Cerebellum -regulates muscular balance, posture, etc.
    • Reticular Formation -acts as a filter for incoming sensory info. (responsible for selective attention)
  15. 2) Limbic System is made of:
    • Thalamus -sorts & routes incoming sensory info & outgoing motor info
    • Hypothalamus -links the nervous system with the endocrine system (regulates primitive motivational drives like thirst, hunger, sex, & rest)
    • Hippocampus -regulates encoding of new memories & retrieval of old ones
    • Amygdala -regulates extreme of intense emotions (rage, fear responses)
  16. 3) Forebrain is made of:
    • A. Cerebral Cortex
    • -Cerebral hemispheres (left & right)
    • -Corpus Callosum (connecting structure)
    • B. Lobes of the Brain
    • -Frontal Lobe
    • -Temporal
    • -Parietal
    • -Occipital
  17. A) Cerebral Cortex:
    • Wrinkled outermost covering of brain (made of highly specialized neurons)
    • Responsible for all higher mental processes
  18. Left Hemisphere VS Right Hemisphere:
    • Left: Detail oriented, logic, language, math
    • Right: Concept oriented, music, art
  19. Corpus Callosum:
    • Band of neurons which allows communication between cerebral hemispheres
    • (Women have more; so better multitasking)
  20. B) Lobes of the Brain:
    • Frontal- Counciousness, personality, movement, speech, decision making (largest)
    • Temporal- Processes audio & language
    • Parietal- Processes tactile info. (touch, temp., texture, body position)
    • Occipital- Visual center for info.

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