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2011-02-20 21:14:38
Microbial Metabolism Growth

Exam 2
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  1. Which molecule facilitates the coupling of anabolic and catabolic reaction?
  2. What is catabolism?
    is the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones
  3. What is anabolism?
    the build up of complex organic compounds from simpler ones
  4. How is ATP an intermediate between catabolism and anabolism?
    when catabolic reactions occur the energy is trapped in ATP and some lost as heat, and ATP provides the energy for anabolic reactions
  5. How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions?
    by increasing the number of AB molecules that receive enough activation energy to react
  6. Catalysts?
    substances that can speed up a chemical reaction without being permanently altered themselves
  7. What serves as a biological catalysts in living cells?
  8. Examples of cofactors are?
    iron, zinc, magnesium, or calcium
  9. If the cofactor is an organic molecule it is called?
    coenzyme; it carries e- and H+
  10. NAD+?
    is primarily involved in catabolic (energy-yielding) reacions; electron carrier
  11. NADP+?
    is primarily involved in anabolic (energy-requiring) reactions; electron carrier
  12. What are compounds contain derivatives of the B vitamin niacin?
    NAD+ and NADP+
  13. Oxidoreductase
    oxidation-reduction reactions
  14. Transferase
    transfer functional groups
  15. Hydrolase
  16. Lyase
    removal of atoms without hydrolysis
  17. Isomerase
    rearrangement of atoms
  18. Ligase
    Joining of molecules, uses ATP
  19. What factors may cause denaturation?
    temperature, pH, and substate concentration
  20. What is enzyme saturation?
    its active site is always occupied by substrate or product molecules
  21. What are enzyme poisions and what do they do?
    cyanide and fluoride; permanently inactivate enzymes
  22. Ribozymes?
    RNA that cuts and splices RNA
  23. Describe the process of substrate-level phosphorylation
    is the transfer of a high-energy PO4- to ADP making ATP
  24. Decribe the process of oxidative phosphorylation
    energy released from the transfer of electrons from one compound to another forms a proton gradient and is used to generate ATP by oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)
  25. Describe the process of photophosphorylation
    light energy causes chlorophyll to give up electrons. Transfer of electrons through a system of carrier molecules is used to generate ATP
  26. What is a metabolic pathway?
    a sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions occuring in a cell
  27. What is carbohydrate catbolism?
    the breakdown of carbohydrate molecules to produce energy
  28. What general processes are used to produce energy from glucose?
    cellular respiration and fermentation
  29. What is glycolysis?
    the oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid witht he production of some ATP and energy-containing NADH
  30. What is the Kreb cycle?
    the oxidation of acetyl CoA (a derivative of pyruvic acid) to carbon dioxide, with the production of some ATP, energy-containing NADH, and another reduced electron carrier, FADH2
  31. Where does glycolysis take place?
    in the cytoplasm; independent of oxygen
  32. What are the end products of glycolysis?
    2 pyruvic acid; 2 NADH; 2 ATP
  33. Name a bacteria that uses the pentose phosphate pathway
    E. Faecalis
  34. What happens in the intermediate step?
    pyruvic acid is oxidized and decarboyxaled and acetyl CoA formed enters Kreb cycle