Card Set Information
Microbial Metabolism Growth
Which molecule facilitates the coupling of anabolic and catabolic reaction?
What is catabolism?
is the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones
What is anabolism?
the build up of complex organic compounds from simpler ones
How is ATP an intermediate between catabolism and anabolism?
when catabolic reactions occur the energy is trapped in ATP and some lost as heat, and ATP provides the energy for anabolic reactions
How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions?
by increasing the number of AB molecules that receive enough activation energy to react
substances that can speed up a chemical reaction without being permanently altered themselves
What serves as a biological catalysts in living cells?
Examples of cofactors are?
iron, zinc, magnesium, or calcium
If the cofactor is an organic molecule it is called?
coenzyme; it carries e- and H+
is primarily involved in catabolic (energy-yielding) reacions; electron carrier
is primarily involved in anabolic (energy-requiring) reactions; electron carrier
What are compounds contain derivatives of the B vitamin niacin?
NAD+ and NADP+
transfer functional groups
removal of atoms without hydrolysis
rearrangement of atoms
Joining of molecules, uses ATP
What factors may cause denaturation?
temperature, pH, and substate concentration
What is enzyme saturation?
its active site is always occupied by substrate or product molecules
What are enzyme poisions and what do they do?
cyanide and fluoride; permanently inactivate enzymes
RNA that cuts and splices RNA
Describe the process of substrate-level phosphorylation
is the transfer of a high-energy PO4- to ADP making ATP
Decribe the process of oxidative phosphorylation
energy released from the transfer of electrons from one compound to another forms a proton gradient and is used to generate ATP by oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)
Describe the process of photophosphorylation
light energy causes chlorophyll to give up electrons. Transfer of electrons through a system of carrier molecules is used to generate ATP
What is a metabolic pathway?
a sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions occuring in a cell
What is carbohydrate catbolism?
the breakdown of carbohydrate molecules to produce energy
What general processes are used to produce energy from glucose?
cellular respiration and fermentation
What is glycolysis?
the oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid witht he production of some ATP and energy-containing NADH
What is the Kreb cycle?
the oxidation of acetyl CoA (a derivative of pyruvic acid) to carbon dioxide, with the production of some ATP, energy-containing NADH, and another reduced electron carrier, FADH2
Where does glycolysis take place?
in the cytoplasm; independent of oxygen
What are the end products of glycolysis?
2 pyruvic acid; 2 NADH; 2 ATP
Name a bacteria that uses the pentose phosphate pathway
What happens in the intermediate step?
pyruvic acid is oxidized and decarboyxaled and acetyl CoA formed enters Kreb cycle