Biology: Cells

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reginedc
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6777
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Biology: Cells
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2010-02-13 01:44:26
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biology cells
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Biology Vocab
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  1. Cytoskeleton
    Structurally supports, imparts shape to cell; moves cell and its components. Contains microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.
  2. Mitochondrion
    Energy powerhouse; produces many ATP by aerobic respiration.
  3. Centrioles
    Special centers that produce and organize microtubules.
  4. Plasma Membrane
    Selectively controls the kinds and amounts of substances moving into and out of cell; helps maintain cytoplasmic volume; composition.
  5. Nucleus
    Keeps DNA away from potentially damaging reactions in cytoplasm. Is surrounded by nuclear envelope, contains nucleolus, and DNA in nucleoplasm.
  6. Ribosomes
    (attached to rough ER and free in cytoplasm) Sites of protein synthesis.
  7. Rough ER
    Modifies new polypeptide chains; synthesizes lipids.
  8. Smooth ER
    Diverse roles; e.g., makes lipids, degrades fats, inactivates toxins.
  9. Golgi Body
    Modifies, sorts, ships proteins and lipids for export or for insertion into cell membranes. Shipping Center.
  10. Lysosome
    Digests, recycles materials. Garbage man.
  11. organelle
    a structure in a cell that has an organized function
  12. selectively permeable
    a membrane that allows some molecules through but not others; semipermeable
  13. cytoskeleton
    a cell's framework of protein filaments and tubules
  14. endoplasmic reticulum
    organelle composed of a network of connected membranous tubules and vesicles
  15. golgi apparatus
    organelle that prepares and modifies cellular products for secretion
  16. mitochondria
    organelles housing enzymes that catalyze the reactions of aerobic respiration
  17. lysosomes
    organelle that contains digestive enzymes
  18. peroxisomes
    membranous sacs abundant in liver and kidney cells that contain enzymes that catalyze a variety of biochemical reactions
  19. microfilaments
    a tiny rod of actin protein in the cytoplasm that provides structural support and movement
  20. microtubules
    a minute, hollow rod constructed of mamy molecules of the protein tubulin
  21. centrosome
    organelle consisting of two centrioles
  22. cilia
    microscopic, hairlike processes on the exposed surfaces of certain epithelial cells
  23. flagellum
    motile, tail-like cellular structure such as on a sperm cell
  24. vesicles
    membranous, cytoplasmic sacs formed by infoldings of the cell membrane
  25. nucleur envelope
    double-layered envelope that encloses the nucleus; consists of inner and outer lipid bi-layer membranes
  26. nucleolus
    a small, dense body in the cell nucleus composed largely of RNA and protein;
  27. chromatin
    DNA and complexed protein that condenses to form chromosomes during mitosis
  28. chromosomes
    rodlike structures that condense from chromatin in a cell's nucleus during mitosis
  29. diffusion
    random movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration toward one of lower concentration
  30. equilibrium
    a state of balance between opposing forces
  31. facilitated diffusion
    diffusion in which carrier molecules transport substances across membranes from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
  32. osmosis
    movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from an area of greater water concentration to an area of lesser water concentration
  33. isotonic
    a solution with the same osmotic pressure as the solution with which it is compared
  34. hypotonic
    a solution with a lower osmotic pressure than the solution with which it is compared
  35. hypertonic
    a solution with a greater osmotic pressure than the solution with which it is compared
  36. filtration
    movement of small molecules through a membrane by hydrostatic pressure, while large molecules are restricted
  37. edema
    fluid accumulation with tissue spaces
  38. active transport
    process that requires energy to move a substance across a cell membrane, usually against the concentration gradient
  39. endocytosis
    process by which a cell membrane envelopes a substance and draws it into a cell in a vesicle
  40. exocytosis
    transport of substances out of a cell in membrane-bound vesicles
  41. pinocytosis
    process by which a cell engulfs droplets of fluid from its surroundings
  42. phagocytosis
    process by which a cell engulfs and digests solids
  43. receptor-mediated endocytosis
    receptors bind specific ligands and they are drawn into the cell
  44. interphase
    period between cell divisions when a cell metabolizes and prepares to divide
  45. mitosis
    a form of cell division that produces two somatic cells with identical chromosome numbers as the original somatic cell
  46. cytokinesis
    division of the cytoplasm
  47. prophase
    stage of mitosis when chromosomes become visible
  48. metaphase
    stage in mitosis when chromosomes align in the middle of the cell
  49. anaphase
    stage of mitosis when duplicate chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell
  50. telophase
    stage in mitosis when newly formed cells seperate
  51. differentiation
    cell specialization
  52. stem cells
    an undifferentiated cell that can divide to yield two daughter stem cells, or a stem cell and a progenitor cell
  53. progenitor cell
    daughter cell of a stem cell that is partially specialized
  54. apoptosis
    programmed cell death

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