Psychology ch 7 & 8

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AnnaIsCool
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67853
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Psychology ch 7 & 8
Updated:
2011-02-28 20:31:50
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psychology
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ch 7 & 8.1, 8.3
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  1. consciousness
    a state of awareness, including a person's feelings, sensations, ideas, and perceptions
  2. circadian rhythm
    the rhythm of activity and inactivity lasting approximately 1 day
  3. insomnia
    the failure to get enough sleep at night in order to feel rested the next day
  4. sleep apnea
    a sleep disorder in which a person has trouble breathing while asleep
  5. narcolepsy
    a condition characterized by suddenly falling asleep or feeling very sleepy during the day
  6. nightmares
    unpleasant dreams
  7. night terrors
    sleep disruptions that occur during stage IV sleep, involving screaming, panic, or confusion
  8. sleepwalking
    walking or carrying out behaviors while asleep
  9. hypnosis
    a state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestability
  10. posthypnotic suggestion
    a suggestion made during hypnosis that influences the participant's behavior afterward
  11. biofeedback
    the process of learning to control bodily states with the help of machines monitoring the states to be controlled
  12. meditation
    the focusing of attention to clear one's mind and produce relaxation
  13. psychoactive drugs
    chemicals that affect the nervous system and result in altered consciousness
  14. marijuana
    the dried leaves and flowers of Indian hemp that produce an aletered state of consciousness when smoked or ingested
  15. hallucinations
    perceptions that have no direct external cause
  16. hallucinogens
    drugs that often produce hallucinations
  17. LSD
    a potent psychedelic drug that produces distortions of perception and thought
  18. sensation
    • occurs when a stimulus of one of your sense organs detects physical changes in energy
    • heat
    • light
    • sounds
    • pressure
  19. perception
    organization of sensory information into meaningful experiences
  20. absolute threshold
    the weakest amount of stimulus required to produce a sensation
  21. difference threshold
    minimum amount of difference a person can detect between the 2 stimuli half of the time
  22. weber's law
    the larger or stronger a stimulus, the larger the change required for a person to notice that anything has happened to it
  23. sensory adaptation
    • we get used to a certain stimuli and only notice when it changes
    • darkness
    • noise
    • smell
    • clothing
  24. we don't just experoence single things, but rather
    patterns as wholes
  25. figure-ground perception
    you distinguish between the object you are looking at/listening to, separate from the background
  26. perceptual interference
    based on prior knowledge we come to expect certain things, based on what we percieve
  27. perception is a learned art
    it takes into account all of your experiences and creates a perceptual set through which you see the world
  28. subliminal perception
    some people believe that your unconcious mind can pick up on things you don't realize you're percieving
  29. depth perception
    • monocular depth cues
    • binocular depth cues
  30. monocular ddepth cues
    • relative height
    • interposition
    • light and shadows
    • texture
    • motion parallax
    • linear perspective
    • relative motion
  31. binocular depth cues
    • convergence
    • retinal disparity
  32. constancy
    no matter what conditions you experience something under, you still regard it as the same and unchanging
  33. illusions
    incorrect perceptions. Our prior experiences play with what we are currently perceiving
  34. ESP
    • extra sensory perception. highly debated
    • clairvoyance
    • telepathy
    • psychokinesis
    • precognition

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