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glands of internal secretion; seccrete highly specialized substances (hormones) that, w/ nervous system, maintain homeostasis.
How are hormones transported? And how do they act on body cells?
- by blood or lymph
- directly on body cells; or indirectly to control the hormones of other glands
What are 5 vital functions that the action of hormones regulates?
- growth and development
- energy production
- food metabolism
- reproductive process
- response to stress
What are the 6 major endocrine glands?
- pituitary gland
What gland regulates the output of hormones by other glands?
anterior pituitary; or 'master gland'
true or false. The pituitary itself is regulated by the hormones of the other glands
The period of life considered adolescence is represented by the years between ages what?
State the approximate ages for each of the following phases:
a dynamic period of development marked by rapid changes in body size, shape, and composition; a sign of growing up
Why is chronologic age an unreliable indicator of puberty?
because it may begin normally in either sex between 9 and 17 years of age
do females or males generally go through puberty first?
When do the secondary sex changes begin to appear in females? In males? how long does it usually take for them to be complete?
Pituitary hormones control the hormones produced by what?
ovaries and testes
hormones produced by the ovaries are know collectively as what? And those produce by the testes are known as what?
estrogens and androgens are responsible for the development of what 3 things?
- sex organs
- accessory sex organ
- secondary sex characteristics
In the process of female development from estrogens, they experience an accelerated growth spurt; and sex organs develope;list the 4 female sex organs that develop.
- fallopian tubes
What are 4 stages in the appearance of secondary sex characteristics in females
- growth of pubic and axillary hair
- skeletal develpment, increase height, enlargment of pelvis
- fat deposition on the hips
- voice drops one or two tones
true or false. In female development, menstruation may precede the first ovulation.
In the process of male development from androgens, they experience an increase in the size of testes and scrotum, and the beginning of spermatogenesis; and sex organs develop; what are the 4 male sex organs that develop?
- vas deferens
- seminal vesicles
What are 2 stages in the appearance of secondary sex characteristics in males?
- growth of facial, pubic, and axillary hair
- voice deepens
true or false. During male development, they experience an increase in height, and muscle volume and mass
What age do growth spurts usually occur in females? in males?
What are 2 concerns with growth spurts of teens?
- overeating with underexercise, along with psychosocial problems; obesity
- poor coordination and awkwardness
What are the three health basics for teens?
psychologically and socially, ____________ is the bridge from childhood to adulthood
psychosocial development: describe the independance of early adolescence, 10-13 years, middle school. (2)
- less interest in parental activities
- wide mood swings
psychosocial development: describe the independance of middle adolescence, 14-17, high school. (1)
peak of parental conflicts
psychosocial development: describe the independance of late adolescence, 18-21, education or work. (1)
reacceptance of parental values
psychosocial development: describe the body image of early adolescence, 10-13, middle school. (2)
- preoccupation with self and pubertal changes
- uncertainty about appearnce
psychosocial development: describe the body image of middle adolescence, 14-17, high school. (2)
- general acceptance of body
- concern over making body more attractive
psychosocial development: describe the body image of late adolescence, 18-21, education or work. (1)
acceptance of pubertal changes
psychosocial development: describe the peer influence of early adolescence, 10-13, middle school. (1)
intense relationships with same sex friends
psychosocial development: describe the peer influence of middle adolescence, 14-17, high school. (3)
- peak of peer involvment
- confomity with peer values
- increased sexual activity and experimentation
psychosocial development: describe the peer influence of late adolescence, 18-21, education or work. (2)
- peer group is less important
- more time spent in sharing intimate relationships
psychosocial development: describe the indentity of early adolescence, 10-13, middle school. (5)
- increase cognition
- increased fantasy world
- idealistic vocational goals
- increased need for privacy
- lack of impulse control
psychosocial development: describe the identity of middle adolescence, 14-17, high school. (4)
- increased scope of feelings
- increased intellectual ability
- feeling of omnipotence
- risk-taking behavior
psychosocial development: describe the identity of late adolescence, 18-21, education or work. (3)
- practical, realistic vocational goals
- refinement of moral religious, and sexual values
- ablilty to compromise and to set limits
true or false. Adolescence is the highest of any time in life for nutritional requirements for males; exceeded only during pregnancy for females.
Why is undernutrition common for adolescent boys? girls? teens?
- overactivity and poor food selection
- voluntary diet restrictions with poor food slection and fad diets in attempt to be thin
- teens with a distorted body image may take concern to extremes
Nem 2 common eating disorders that can lead to severe health complications, and even death, and how to treat them.
- anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia
- treatment requires an interdisciplinary team approach involving medical care, psychotherapy, and nutrition and family counseling
What condition is common among teenage girls, particularly after the onset of menstruation, and is treated with iron supplements, changes in diet, or both?