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What are 4 personal factors of adolescence that are important to recognize in treating these pts?
- increased self-interest
- growing independance
- concern over physical characteristics
describe 5 possible causes of anxiety in adolescence:
- health problems: younger, less healthy teenagers tend to show greater health concerns
- violence, substance abuse
- sexual issues, peer pressures
- family arguments, divorce
- school performance, concern about future
describe 3 points of increased self-interest in adolescence:
- concern for themselves and respond best to those who show concern for them
- want attention and tend to reject those who do not listen
- interest in their own health
describe 5 factors in the growing of independance for adolescence:
- their independance is growing rapidly, they have conflicts with feelings of dependance and independance
- childhood dependance on parents is given up, teachers and other authorities are questioned
- personal identity is sought-they are uncertain about their role in society
- increased confidence in and respect for other adults outside of family
- teachers, coaches, and health professionals can have a powerful impact
describe 5 factors of concern over physical characteristics for adolescence:
- girls mature earlier than boys; girls are usually taller - can lead to social problems
- increased interest in personal appearance, they want to look like peers
- issues such as delayed growth and sexual development
- obesity may be troublesome
- skin disorders such as acne, this affects self-esteem
What are 2 main oral conditions for adolescence?
- dental caries
- periodontal infections
List 3 reasons why dental caries is an oral condition to be concerned with in adolescence:
- incidence is higher in adolescence than other age groups, especially if water isn't fluoridated
- caries are related to eating habits; frequency, rapid growth, emotional issues, peer pressure
- cariogenic foods selected
true or false. Adolescence are subject to all categories of periodontal infections.
What are 3 factors in biofilm-induced gingivitis during puberty?
- incidence and severity may increase
- clinical and hormonal changes related to increase in biofilm
- exaggerated response to biofilm
What are 11 risk factors for periodontitis in adolescence?
- local factors: supra and subgingival calc or biofilm accumulations
- pathogenic microorganisms, viruses
- untreated dental caries and defective restorations
- orthodontic appliances
- oral hygiene
- infrequent or inadequate dental hygiene care
- socioeconomic influences
- use of tobacco
- systemic disease: diabetes and hematological disease
- host immune factors
- genetic factors
What are the 2 classifications of periodontal disease in adolescence?
loss of periodontal attachment and supporting bone is evident in __ to __% of adolescents around the world.
periodonitis in adolescense that is characterized by severe bone loss involving the first permanent molars and the incisors, with proximal surface attachment loss on at least two permanent teeth; the first diagnosis is during the curcumpubertal years; the main microorganism is actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
Localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP)
periodontitis in adolscence characterized by generalized proximal surface attachment loss affecting at least 3 permanent teeth other than the first molars and incisors. Occurs in persons under 30; microfloral found in periodontal pockets of this have similarities to the microflora of chronic adult periodontitis
Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP)
Why is it important to treat adolescence as adults?
physically many of them are mature, but emotional development varies; they are becoming less dependent on families, and more on the influence of peers
true or false. It is important to avoid lecturing and admonishing adolescence.
true or false. The dentaly hygiene care plan for adolescence requires approval by a parent or guardian.
What are 8 oral health problems in adolescence besides dental caries and periodontal disease?
- Oral manifestations of STDs
- tobacco use: leukoplacia and periodontal damage
- effects of cocaine and other drugs
- oral contraceptives
- anorexia nervosa or bulimia
- traumatic injury to teeth and oral structures
- pregnancy influences
- body piercings
What are 4 important factors to educate the adolescent pt about in biofilm control?
- cause and prevention of caries and perio infections
- effects of biofilm accumulation
- puproses of professional calc removal
- daily self-care and its relation to oral tissue health and halitosis prevention
Instrumentation for the dental hygiene care of adolescents consists of what? (3)
- may need a series of appointments
- careful and complete scaling and root planing
- removal of all local irregularities, such as inadequate margins of restorations
true or false. A combined fluoride program is indicated for most adolescent pts, particularly for thos who have not had fluoride in their water.
What are 4 important diet instruction suggestions for the adolescent pt?
- advise foods from the most recent food guide pyramid: foods for growth, energy, clear complextion, wellness, etc
- emphasize a nutritious breakfast
- snakc selection: such as raw fruits, veggies, nuts, unsweetened milk, sugar-free food and gum
- suggest reading labels
The cycel is the period of time from the beginning of one menstrual flow to the beginning of the next menstrual flow.
What are 2 factors in cyclic changes in the uterus?
- instigated by hormones
- preparation of the endometrium for pregnancy
What does the menstrual fluid consist of? (3)
- endometrial membrane fragements
How long is the menstrual cycle usually?
cyclic menstruation occurs from _______ to _______
true or false. pregnancy and part of breast-feeding disrupt the menstrual cycle.
The mestrual cycle completes in about __ days, but can range from _____ to ___ days
menstruation may start between __ and __ years
true or false. Menstruation may occur before the first ovulation.
true or false. timing and extent of flow of menstruation may be irregular for several years
What are 6 factors that might affect the menstrual cycle?
- changes in climate
- changes in work schedule
- emotional trauma
- acute or chronic illness
- weight loss
- excessive exercise
a distinctive group of physical and emotional changes that may occur 7 - 10 days prior to menstruation
premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
What are 7 physical symptoms of PMS?
- skin breakouts
- food cravings
What are 7 affective symptoms of PMS?
- mood changes
- reduced ability to concentrate
What are medical managements for PMS?
- medical care for severe symptoms
- possibly prescription medication
What are 5 self-management methods of PMS?
- daily exercise
- dieg modification: no caffeine, salt, alcohol, and simple carbohydrates
- stress reduction
- Over-the-counter medications to manage discomfort
What type of dysmenorrhea is described?
the organs are normal and there are symptoms of hyperactivity and contractions
primary or functional dysmenorrhea
What type of dysmenorrhea is described?
associated with abnormal anatomy of the uterus or as the result of an illness such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
secondary or acquired dysmenorrhea
What type of dysmenorrhea is described?
emotional status, inadequate preparation for the arrival of puberty, poor parental example
physiolgic or psychologic factors
What are 2 specific oral findings that may be found in pts during menstruation? And how can we help reduce these findings?
- no spedific gingival changes; occasionally problems may occur
- exaggerated response to local irritants or unusual gingival bleeding
- prevetion through biofilm control, self-care measures, and removal of calc at regular maintenance intervals