Comp Pt

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Comp Pt
2011-02-22 23:59:09
Chapter fourty eight

week six
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  1. What is a type of oral contraceptive that is recognized as safe and effective method of contraception when they are taken as prescribed?
    birth control pills
  2. What is an example of a combination preparation of oral contraceptives that is nearly 100% effective in preventing pregnancy when taken properly?
    combination of synthetic hormones estrogen and progestin
  3. OCs inhibit the release of ___________-releasing hormone, without which the ovum cannot be released from the ovary.
  4. describe the schedule of administration of oral contraceptives:
    • one pill each day for 21 days starting 5 days after the onset of menstrual flow
    • placebo pill is taken for a period of 7 days
    • routine is followed regardless of when menstrual flow starts or stops
  5. What type of hormonal contraceptive is being described?
    the progetsin-only pill has been used when estrogen is contraindicatedpregnancy prevention is slightly less effective with this pillmenstrual cycles tend to be irregular; side effects are frequent
    single preparations: minipills
  6. What type of hormonal contraceptive is being described?
    contains synthetic progestin
    one injection every 12 weeks prior to ovulation
    can be helpful to thos who have trouble to remember to take daily pill
    injectable contraceptive: depo-provera
  7. What type of hormonal contraceptive is being described?
    allows for slow release of hormone
    provides effective contraception for 5 years
    method of action is similar to injectable
    subdermal implant
  8. What are 5 contraindications for usnig contraceptives containing hormones?
    • circulatory problems: thromboembolic disorders, cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, severe hypertension
    • liver disease
    • cancer of the breast
    • severe migraine headaches
    • pregnancy or lactation
  9. Side effects of hormonal contraceptives may be related to what, rather than to hormonal effects?
    incorrect use of drug
  10. what are 4 irregularities that occur in some women, but are not among the most common side effects of hormonal contraceptives?
    • visual problems
    • mental depression
    • rashes
    • bleeding irregularities
  11. What are the 3 most common side effects of hormonal contraceptives?
    • cardiovascular (including increased blood pressure)
    • weight gain
    • decreased effectiveness when certain drugs are used including antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and rifampin
  12. true or false. The use of hormonal contraceptives may have an effect on the gingiva, that is similary to the gingivitis described in pregnancy.
  13. the complete and permanent cessation of menstrual flow.
  14. menopause generally occurs between ages?
  15. The end of fertility due to decreased production of estrogen and progesterone by the ovaries.
  16. Whe is menopause usually confirmed?
    when a women has no menstrual period for 12 consecutive months and there is no other cause for this change
  17. What are 4 vasomotor reactions in menopause symptoms?
    • hot flashes: periodoc surges of heat involving the whole body, may sweat also
    • hot flash may begin with a headache; proceed to a flushing face, with heart palpitations and dizziness, followed by chill
    • episodes may last a few minutes, or more than 30
    • night sweats and sleeping problems
  18. What are 3 vaginal changes in menopause symptoms?
    • dryness, irritation, and thinning of tissue
    • more vaginal infections may occur
    • associated with decreased estrogen levels
  19. What are 4 emotional disturbances in menopause symptoms?
    • mood swings, depression, irritability, difficulty with memory or concentration
    • decreased interest in sexual activity and changes in sexual response
    • anxiety, tension, irritability and feeling useless
    • weight gain or increase of body fat around waist
  20. What are 4 postmenopausal effects?
    • reproductive organs atrophy
    • bone problems have been associated with the menopausal patient
    • skin and mucous membranes decrease in thickness and keratinization becoming fragile and easily injured
    • predisposition to conditions including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypothyroidism
  21. Describe 3 gingival changes that may be associated with menopause.
    • usually represent an exaggerated response to biofilm
    • hormonal changes influence tissue response
    • menopausal gingivostomatitis may develop; may also occur after removal of, or radiation therapy to the ovaries
  22. What are 6 mucous membrane and tongue changes that may be associated with menopause?
    • tissue shiny and vary in color from abnormal paleness to redness, dryness with burning sensations may be present
    • burning mouth syndrome
    • altered salivary composition due to psychological stress
    • epithelium may ecome thin
    • taste perception may be altered
    • inadequate diet and eating habits may contribute to adverse changes - often associated with vitamin B deficiencies
  23. true or false. alveolar bone loss may be a complication with menopause?
  24. In pts going trhough menapause, what should you emphasize importance on in regards to dental hygiene care?
    the need for self-care measures
  25. What are 3 important appointment suggestions in how to handle a pt with menapause?
    • establish good rapport; courtesy, personal attention, and friendly, unhurried manor
    • pay attention to details such as: seating pt promply, handling instruments and materials effeciently and with calm assurance
    • consider adjusting temperature of room for pt comfort
  26. What are 4 important instructions to give a pt with menopause at the dental hygiene appointment?
    • saliva substitute
    • carefully explain meausers for prevention of periodontal infections
    • emphasize reasons for frequent calc removal
    • explain relationship between good general health and oral health
  27. What are 6 good recommendations about diet for the pt with menopause?
    • recommend: whole grain, veggies, and fruit
    • foods low in fat and cholesterol
    • eat lots of calcium
    • avoid: alcohol