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What disability is characterized by; significant limitations in intellectual functioning, significant limitations in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills, and originates vefore age 18?
What are the 5 dimensions tested for mental retardation?
- intellectual abilities
- adaptive behavior
- participation, interactions, and social roles
- context (environmental, culture)
Which mental retardation dimension includes; general mental capabilities include reasoning, planning, solving problems, thinking abstractly, comprehending complex ideas, learning quickly, and learning from experience, and is represented by IQ scores?
Which mental retardation dimension includes; collection of conceptual, social, and practical skills that have been learned by people in order to function in every day life, conceptual (language, reading, self-direction), practical (daily living activities, occupational skills)
Which mental retardation dimension includes; participation (interaction observed by direct observation), social roles (age-specific activity)?
participation, interactions, and social roles
Which mental retardation dimension includes; physical and mental health and especially medications have definite influence on the assessment of intelligence and adaptive behavior, etiology is related to four categories of risk factors
health (physical and mental health, and etiology)
Which mental retardation dimension includes; environmental: residence and surroundings that provide for learning and development, fostering personal well being, safety in relation to all of the first four dimensions
context (environmental, culture)
What are 7 prenatal biomedical risk factors for mental retardation?
- chromosomal disorders
- single gene disorders
- metabolic disorders
- cerebral dysgenesis
- maternal illnesses
- parental age
What are 4 prenatal social risk factors for mental retardation?
- maternal malnutrition
- domestic violence
- lack of access to prenatal care
What are 4 prenatal behavioral risk factors for mental retardation?
- parental drug use
- parental alcohol use
- parental smoking
- parental immaturity
what are 2 prenatal educational risk factors for mental retardation?
- parental cognitive disability without supports
- lack of preparation for parenthood
What are 3 perinatal biomedical risk factors for mental retardation?
- birth injury
- neonatal disorders
What is a perinatal social risk factor for mental retardation?
lack of access to birth care
What are 3 perinatal behavioral risk factors for mental retardation?
- parental rejection of caretaking
- parental abandonment of child
What is a perinatal educational risk factor for mental retardation?
lack of medical referral for intervention services at discharge
What are 6 postnatal biomedical risk factors for mental retardation?
- traumatic brain injury
- seizure disorders
- fetal alcohol syndrome
- congenital heart disease
What are 5 postnatal social risk factors for mental retardation?
- impaired child-caregiver
- inadequate parenting skills
- family poverty
- chronic illness that may be in the family
What are 5 postnatal behavioral risk factors for mental retardation?
- child abuse and neglect
- domestic violence
- inadequate safety measures
- social deprivation
- difficult child behaviors
What are 5 postnatal educational risk factors for mental retardation?
- impaired parenting
- delayed diagnosis
- inadequate early intervention services
- inadequate special educational services
- inadequate family support
strategies and resources selected to imporve the functioning of the mentally retarded individual
What are 4 purposes for having supports for mental retardation?
- promote development, education, interests, and personal well-being
- improve individual functioning and functional capabilities
- lessen person's disability by providing services and interventions that focus on prevention
- enhance personal outcomes related to independence, community participation, and personal well-being
What are 4 types of supports for mental retardation?
- supported learning and education
- supported living
- supported health services
- supported employment
What are 2 different applications of supports for mental retardation?
- needs of the individual determines support
- health deficiencies can influence improvements expected from other supports
What are 3 ways that dental hygiene care providers can provide support for mental retardation patients?
- freedom from oral discomfort and pain
- learning self-care for daily oral biofilm removal
- improved quality of life
What are the 4 different levels of mental retardation?
How is the level of retardation of individuals determined?
by standardized intelligence tests
When is the category unspecified mental retardation used?
when standard tests can not be performed because of lack of cooperation, severe impairment, or infancy of pt
What is the approximate IQ and mental age of mild retardation?
- adult mental age from 9-under 12 yrs
Describe the adaptive behavior of children with mild retardation. (2)
- in special classes for the educable, child advances to a level of 3rd-6th grade
- practical skills can be learned
Describe the adaptive behavior of adults with mild retardation. (4)
- they care for personal hygiene and other necessities with support
- communication is good; attentionspan and memory are less than average
- activities that do not require involved planning can be carried out
- most educable pts can engage in semiskilled work with guidance and maintain themselves
What is the approximate IQ and adult mental age for pts with moderate retardation?
- adult mental age from 6-under 9 years of age
Describe the adaptive behavior of children with moderate mental retardation. (4)
- marked development lag occurs in early years, child can be trained in personal care and hygiene with support
- attends classes and learns simple habits and skills, doesn't learn to read or write
- speaks in short sentences, and understands best when short sentences are used
- participates well in group activities
Describe the adaptive behavior of adults with moderate mental retardation. (4)
- attends to personal care with support
- has short attention span and memory
- may have problems of coordination, but performs simple tasks, and can take responsibility for errands and helpful duties
- not completely capable of self maintenance
What is the approximate IQ and adult mental ate for pts with severe mental retardation?
Describe the adaptive behavior of children with severe mental retardation. (3)
- benefits from systematic habit training
- may make attempts at personal care and dressing with support
- usually walks, uses some speech, and responds to directions
describe adaptive behavior of adults with severe mental retardation. (3)
- conforms to daily routine
- may help with household and other small tasks in spite of limited attention span
- likely to result in continous need of support
What is the approximate IQ and adult mental age for pts with profound mental retardation?
- under 20
- below 3 yrs of age
describe the adaptive behaviors of children with profound mental retardation. (2)
- delays occur in all phases of development
- close supervision and care are necessary
describe the adaptive behavior of adults with profound mental retardation. (2)
- many remain inert and placid throughout early years, and never learn to sit up
- results in severe limitation in self-care, continence, communication, and mobility
When are 3 times that mental retardation may occur? And which one makes up the majority?
- before birth
- at birth
- after birth
true or false. diagnosis of mental retardation may be complicated, and many cases can only be identified as unknown origin.
What are 6 factors that contribute to the etiology of mental retardation?
- the cause may be treatable
- provide info for future functional support needs
- facilitate genetic counseling and family planning
- assist the individual for life planning
- search for all possible risk factors that lead to impaired functioning
- determine detailed 3 generation family history
What are 3 main physical characteristic changes in pts with mental retardation?
- facial or other characteristics may be pahtognomic
- skull anomalies: microcephalus, hydrocephalus, sherical, conical, or other asymmetries
- dysmorphic features: asymmetries of face, malformations of outer ear, anomalies of eyes, unusual nose shape
true or false. A higher incidence of oral developmental malformations may be noted with mentally retarded pts.
Describe oral findings in mentally retared pts on the lips
- increased thickness
- lip biting is a self-injurious habit
describe oral findings in mentally retarded pts of teeth.
- tooth anomalies
- imperfect formation
- delayed or irregular eruption patterns
describe oral findings in mentally retarded pts of periodontal infections
- commin in indivuduals with mental retardation
- incidence influenced by supports (assisted oral care)
describe oral findings in mentally retarded pts of oral habits
- increased clenching
- tongue thrusting
What are 3 factors that effect dental caries in the mentally retarded pt
- fluorides and water fluoridation
- form and frequency of cariogenic foods consumed
- personal daily control of biofilm
true or false. Research has shown that pts with severe or profound mental retardation have significantly more carious lesions. But literature reveiws show much variation in results
both are true