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Electromagnetic waves
waves that consist of oscillating electric and magnetic fields

Index of refraction
a number indicating the speed of light in a given medium as either the ratio of the speed of light in a vacum to that in the given medium absolute index of refraction or the ratio speed of light in a specified medium to that in the given medium relative index of refraction

Linearly polarized
the displacement of any point on the string from its equilibrium position is parallel to a line that makes an angle with xaxis

Malus's law
l=l_{0}cos^{2}, incident wave polarized, ideal polarized

Refraction
light rays that change direction as they cross the boundary between the two media

Disperstion
the speed of light in matter depends of frequency

Critical angle
the minimum angle of incident for which no light is transmitted past the boundary

Bruster's angle
the angle of incident for which the reflected light is totally polarized

Focal point
all rays parallel to the axis that are incident near the vertex are reflected by the convex mirror so they appear to originate from point F

Mirror Equation
1/p+1/q=1/f

Interference
where waves from small number of sources travel different paths and arrive at an observer with different phases

Diffraction
The spreading of waves after they travel around obstacles or through apertures

Principal of relativity
the laws of physics are the same in all inertia frames

Time dilation
the time between tickds of the moving clock is dilated or expanded

Light Year
the distance light travels in 1 yr

Quanta
the energy emitted and absorbed by oscillating charges must only in discrete amounts

Photoelectric effect
which EM radiation incident on a mental surface causes electrons to be ejected from a metal

Photon
the quantum of EM radiation, that is, the smallest indivisible unit

Ground state
the orbit has the smallest possible radius and the lowest possible energy

E_{n}=
 Mek2e4 = 2.18x10^{18}
 2h2

Heisenberg uncertainthy principal
describes the nature of indeterminacy. States there are limits to how precisely they can be simultaneously measured, even in an ideal experiment

Quantum numbers
set of four numbers. Specify it completely, no two electrons in the same atom can have the same four

Atomic number
the number of positive charges or portons in the nucleus of an atom of a given element

Mass number
the interger nearest in value to the atomic weight of an atom and equal number of nucleons in the nucleus of an atom

Strong force
one of the fundamental forces, along with gravity, electromagnetism, and the weak force

Half life
radioactive decay during which half of the nuclei decay

Fission
a large nuclear nucleus can therefore release energy by splitting into two smaller, more tightly blound nuclei

Fusion
combines two small nuclei to from a larger nucleus

Quarks
fundamental particles whose existence was proposed independently. Any of teh hypothetical particels with the spin 1/2, baryon number 1/3 and electric charge 1/3 or 2/3 that, together with their antiparticles, are believed to constitute all the elementary particles calssed as baryons and mesons, they are distinguished by their flavores, designated as up, down, starnge, charm, bottom, beauty, top or truth, and their colors red, green, and blue

Exchange particle
emitted by one particle and absorbed by another, it can transfer momentum and energy from one particle to another

Radioactive decay
Unstable nuclide that emits radiation

