a&p exam 2.txt

Card Set Information

a&p exam 2.txt
2011-02-21 21:42:16

bio 167
Show Answers:

  1. The skin is an?
  2. What is an organ?
    Structure formed by two or more tissues; has specific function and usually a recognizable shape
  3. Skin consists of?
    Dermis and epidermis
  4. Epidermis is
  5. Dermis is
    CT layer
  6. Papillary layer is
    Superficial; loose CT
  7. Reticular layer is
    Deeper; dense irregular CT
  8. What is hypodermis?
    • Subcutaneous layer or superficial fascia
    • Not part of the skin
  9. What is the hypodermis composed of?
    Loose CT and white adipose tissue
  10. What is the function of the hypodermis?
    Binds the skin to the underlying tissues and structure, stores fat, acts as a shock absorber, insulates the body, and protects the body
  11. Fascia is what?
    Fibrous membrane covering, support and separating muscles
  12. What are the general functions of the skin?
    • � Protection
    • � Receive stimuli
    • � Excretion
    • � Temp regulation
    • � Synthesis is vit D
    • � Immunity
  13. Skin + its derivatives = what?
    Integumentary system
  14. What is a system?
    A set of interconnected or interdependent organs working together to perform a common function
  15. What is the epidermis?
    Outer layer of skin
  16. What type of epithelium is the dermis?
    Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  17. What are the 4 types of cells found in the epidermis?
    • Keratinocytes
    • Melanocytes
    • Langerhan�s cells
    • Merkel cells
  18. Keratinocytes are found?
    Throughout the epidermis
  19. Melanocytes are found?
    In the deepest layer of the epidermis
  20. Where are lagerhan�s cells (epidermal dendritic cells) found primarily?
    Stratum spinosum
  21. Name some characteristics about langerhan�s cells?
    • Star shaped
    • Bone marrow derive
    • Phagocytic cells (antigen presenting)
    • Interact with T cells (immune response)
  22. Where are Merkel cell primarily found?
    In the thin skin; epidermal and dermal junction (palms and soles)
  23. Name some characteristics about Merkel cells
    • Structurally associated to langerhan�s cells but have small dense granules in cytoplasm
    • Associated with disc-like ending of a sensory nerve
  24. Merkel cells + sensory nerve =
    • Merkel disc
    • Touch receptor
  25. What are the layers of the keratinocytes in the epidermis of the think skin?
    • Stratum corneum
    • Stratum lucidum
    • Stratum granulosum
    • Stratum spinosum
    • Stratum basale
  26. What is the stratum corneum?
    • Flattened non-nucleated, keratinized cells
    • �horny cells�
    • Protective layer
  27. What is the stratum lucidum?
    Thick skin, flattened dead cells, no nucleus, no organelles
  28. What is the stratum granulosum?
    2-5 rows of cells with granules, nucleus and organelles start designating
  29. What is the stratum spinosum?
    8-10 rows of cells; many junctional complexes, �prickle cells�
  30. What is the stratum basale?
    Base layer, single layer of cells, rest on the BL, mitosis is active, therefore continually renews cells
  31. On the slides all skin areas will typically show:
    Stratum basale, stratum spinousm, and stratum corneum
  32. Meanocytes are located where?
    Stratum basale and stratum spinosum or in the dermis
  33. Melanocytes send processes between________.
  34. Melanocytes produce _________?
  35. In the process of melanin production Tyrosinase converts
    Tyrosine into a melanin precursor within a melanin granule
  36. Melanin granules are transferred to
  37. Granules accumulate in the __________________ region of the cytoplasm thus shielding the DNA of the dividing cell (and underlying tissue) from damage, potentially carcinogenic UV radiation.
  38. Melanin granules fuse with Lysosomes in the area; lysosomal enzymes breakdown the melanin and melanin is
    Lost in upper epithelial cells.
  39. What are the pigments that contribute to your skin color?
    • Melanin
    • Carotene
    • Hemoglobin
  40. Melanin is?
    The only pigment produced by the skin
  41. Carotene is what?
    Yellow to orange pigment
  42. What area does carotene accumulate?
    Stratum corneum and in hypodermis
  43. What is hemoglobin?
    Oxyhemoglobyn in erythrocytes � red
  44. The number of Melanocytes per unit area is not influenced by sex or race. Differences in individual skin color may be related to?
    • Amount of pigment produced and dispersed
    • Number of melanin granules in Keratinocytes
    • (Rate of degradation)
  45. Tanning refers to a darkening of the kin after exposure to UV light. This process involves?
    • Darkening of pre existing melanin and increase the rate of release
    • Increased rate of synthesis
    • UV light leads to an increase of Tyrosinase activity and increased melanin production
  46. Albinism refers to the inability to produce melanin. What are some characteristics of this?
    • Inherited
    • Lacking Tyrosinase, or cant absorb tyrosine
    • Skin not protected from solar radiation, increased risk of skin cancer
  47. Dermis is composed of CT, supports the epithelium, bound to the hypodermis, what does it contain?
    BV, nerves, glands, and hair follicles
  48. The dermo-epidermal junction is not smooth because of
    Dermal papillae (DP)
  49. Dermal papillae interdigitate with
    Epidermal pegs
  50. Epidermal pegs are?
    Extensions of the epidermis into the dermas
  51. Dermal papillae are?
    Projections of the dermis into the epidermis
  52. Dermal papillae increase the SA of contact and thusly
    Reinforce the junction
  53. The dermis has two layers with indistinct boundaries which are the
    • Papillary layer
    • Reticular layer
  54. The papillary layer has what kind of thickness?
    Superficial thin layer
  55. The papillary layer has what kind of CT?
    Loose CT � fibroblasts, mast cells and macrophages
  56. Papillary layer has dermal papillae which may contain
    Capillaries, free nerve endings and Meisners� corpuscle
  57. Describe the Meissner�s corpuscle
    • Elongated receptor with a multilaminar stacking of supporting cells around a sensory nerve ending
    • Touch receptors
  58. What is the reticular layer? And what kind of CT?
    Deep thicker layer, dense irregular CT
  59. Describe dense irregular CT found in the reticular layer?
    Bundles of collagen and elastic fibers with fewer cells.
  60. In between interlacing fibers of the CT in the reticular layer there are?
    • � White adipose tissue
    • � Nerves
    • � Vessels
    • � Epidermal derivatives
    • � Pacinian corpuscles
  61. What is a Pacianian corpuscle?
    • Round receptor with a concentric layering of supporting cells around a sensory nerve ending
    • Pressure receptor
  62. The fiber arrangement and composition of the reticular layer gives skin?
    Strength, extensibility (ability to stretch), elasticity (ability to return to original shape and expands/contact
  63. Innervations of the skin?
    • Afferent or sensory innervations
    • Efferent or motor innervations
  64. What are adherent or sensory innervations?
    • Touch, pressure, temp and pain sensations
    • Meisner's and Pacinian � free nerve endings
  65. Efferent or motor interaction?
    • Act on Integumentary effectors
    • Goosebumps or sweating
    • Effectors: muscle or gland
  66. Rich blood supply of the dermis involves?
    Rich capillary network in the papillary region � nourish epidermis � temp regulation
  67. Epidermal derivates include
    • Structures formed for the epidermis � hair nails and skin
    • Integumentary glands
    • Sudoriferous or sweat glands
  68. Sebaceous gland is associated with?
    A hair follicle
  69. What type of gland is a sebaceous gland?
    • Simple branched alveolar gland
    • Secretary portion in dermis
  70. The duct of the sebaceous gland empties:
    Neck of hair follicle, directly on skin
  71. Sebum has what kind of secretion?
    • Holocrine
    • Accumulated lipids and cell fragments
  72. Sebum acts as a?
    Protective film
  73. What does sebum do for the skin and hair?
    Prevents drying, and keeps skin soft. Kills certain bacteria.
  74. Sudorigerous or swear glands are widely distributed. There are 2 types
    Eccrine sweat gland and apocrine sweat gland
  75. Eccrine sweat glands are found everywhere except
    Margins of lips, nipples, parts of external genitalia
  76. What is the structure of the Eccrine?
    Simple coiled tubular gland
  77. What kind of secretion do Eccrine glands do?
    Merocrine secretion
  78. Describe the sweat of the Eccrine gland. And what it contains.
    Watery; water, salts, and metabolic waster
  79. What does the Eccrine gland help aid in?
    Evaporative heat loss and waste elimination
  80. Eccrine glands function thought-out life. True or false?
  81. Apocrine sweat glands are found where?
    Axilla and anogenital regions
  82. What is the structure of the apocrine gland?
    Simple branched tubular
  83. Describe the sweat of the apocrine gland. And what it contains
    More viscous. Contains true sweat and fatty substances and proteins
  84. Apocrine glands begin to function at puberty, true or false?
  85. What is a modified sweat gland?
    Ceruminous glands
  86. Ceruminous gland is found where?
    External auditory meatus
  87. What is the structure of the ceruminous gland?
    Simple coiled tubular gland
  88. What kind of secretion does the ceruminous gland do?
    Apocrine secretion
  89. What is cerumen?
    Ear wax
  90. What is excreted by the cerumenious gland?
    Semi solid fatty substance that prevents the eardrum from drying
  91. Hair is what?
    Elastic, cornified threads composed of protein
  92. How does hair grow?
    Discontinuously (periods of rest periods of growth) from hair follicle
  93. The hair is associated with what?
    Sebaceous gland and the arrector pili muscle
  94. Nails are?
    Flat cornified scales
  95. What is the function of our nails?
    Protective protein coverings over distal phalanges
  96. Small injury in the skin involves the
    • Parenchyma
    • Cells enlarge and migrate across the wound
  97. Cells continue to migrate until they are surrounded by other epithelial cells during skin wound healing what is it stopped by?
    �contact inhibition�
  98. Mitosis of basal epidermal cells occurs in response to
    Epidermal growth factor which replaces migrated cells
  99. The wound is resurfaced and there is ____________ when the parenchyma is involved.
    No scar.
  100. Large (deep) wound � involves?
    Both the parenchyma and the stroma
  101. What is the inflammatory phase in wound healing?
    • � Cot forms over the would and dries;
    • � Fibrin seals it;
    • � ends of cut held loosely together.
    • � Epithelial cells migrate under the clot..
    • � In the dermis : proliferation of cells and capillaries
  102. What is the migratory and proliferative phases in large wound heading?
    • � Organization phase
    • � Clot becomes a scab
    • � Epidermis bridges wound
    • � Fibroblasts migrate along fibrin threads and synthesize fibers (scar tissue)
    • � Damaged BV will grow
    • � Form granulation tissue
  103. Maturation phase or regeneration phase of the large wound healing.
    • � Scab soughs of
    • � Epidermis is restored
    • � Dermal scar remains
  104. What is granulation tissue?
    Area of active CT that fills the wound; delicate pink tissue that includes capillaries, macrophages and fibroblasts.
  105. Skeletal tissue helps form?
    The framework of the body
  106. What is the function of skeletal tissue?
    • � Support
    • � Protect viscera
    • � Movement
    • � Provides sites of attachment for muscles
    • � Storage
    • � Houses bone marrow
  107. What does skeletal tissue store?
    Mineral salts (hydroxyaptites)
  108. Red bone marrow gets its color from?
    Presence of blood and blood forming cells
  109. What is present in the red bone marrow?
    Blood cells at different stages of development and some white adipose tissue
  110. What is the only type of marrow in neonates? And what does it do?
    Red bone marrow � active in production of blood
  111. Where is red bone marrow found in adults?
    • Flat bones, sternum, ribs, clavicles, and part of os coxa
    • Proximal end of humerus and femur
  112. What is the main function of red bone marrow?
    • � Hematopoiesis � production of blood cells
    • � Destruction of warn out erythrocytes
    • � Storage (in macrophages ) of iron � form hemoglobin in breakdown
  113. Yellow bond marrow gets its color from?
    Abundance of white adipose tissue
  114. Most red bone marrow gradually changed into the yellow Varity and is present in?
    Many cavities of the bones
  115. Yellow bone marrow stored ?
    White adipose tissue
  116. Yellow bone marrow is not normally _________?
  117. Yellow bone marrow can be replaced with red bone marrow if?
    Severely bleeding or hypoxia
  118. Osseous tissue is
    Bone tissue
  119. As a connective tissue, bone tissue has?
    Matrix & cells
  120. What is in the matrix of bone tissue?
    Mineral salts, ground substance and collagen fibers
  121. In the mineral salts of bone tissue that is
    • Hygroxyapatites = calcium salts
    • Calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate
  122. In the ground substance of bone tissue there is?
    Hylauronic acid and chondrotin sulfate
  123. What are the types of cells in bone tissue?
    • Osteocytes
    • Osteobast
    • Osteoclast
  124. What is an osteocyte?
    Mature bone cell
  125. What is an osteocyte encapsulated in?
    Laminae of mineralized bond matrix � occupies a lacuna
  126. What is a filopodial process?
    Process of osteocyte
  127. Fillopoial processes extend though? And are what?
    Canaliculi, and are small tubular channels; radiate from lacunae
  128. Processed of adjacent osteocytes are connected by junctional complexes which permit?
    Intercellular flow of ions and small molecules
  129. What is the function of the osteocyte?
    Maintained of bone matrix
  130. What is an osteobast?
    Immature bone cell
  131. What is the function of the osteoblast?
    Synthesis of organic component of bone matrix � bone deposition � ground substance and collagen fibers therefore osteoid
  132. Osteobasts are found where?
    Only on the surface of the bone tissue
  133. As osteobast release bone matrix what happens?
    • The cell becomes surrounded by matrix
    • Lacuna and canaiculi form.
    • Therefore it goes from osteoblast to osteocyte
  134. What is an osteoclast?
    Large, multinucleated, motile cell
  135. Where is an osteocast located?
    Only on the surface of bone tissue
  136. What is the function of the osteoclast?
    Bone resorption. Enzyme act on matrix and frees minerals
  137. What is Howship�s lacuna?
    Enzymatically etched depression
  138. What does the periosteum do?
    Covers outer surface of the bone except on the articular surfaces
  139. What is compact bone?
    Dense bone characterized by the presence of osteons
  140. What is spongy bone?
    Consists of bony spicules (trabeculae)
  141. Bone spicules (trabeculae) are what?
    Thin irregular plates of lamellar bone
  142. What is endosteum do?
    Lines cavities within bones
  143. Osteon (haversains system) is what?
    Structural and functional unit of compact bone; complex of concentric lamellae of bone tissue that surrounds a canal.
  144. Central canal
    Canal running though the core of each osteon; contains vessels and nerve fibers; runs parallel to the long axis of the bone; lined with endosteum
  145. What is concentric lamellae?
    Layers of bone matrix around the central canal
  146. What is interstitial lemellae?
    Layers of bone matrix that occur between osteons but are not associate with a central canal; remnant of a remodeled osteon
  147. What is a perforating canal (Volkmann�s canal)?
    Canal that runs at an angle across the long axis of a bone; connects the vascular and neural supplies of the periosteum to those in the central canals and marrow cavity; lined with endosteum
  148. Long bone definition and example
    • Tubular: length > width
    • Body (shaft) + 2 ends (concave or convex)
    • Femur
  149. Short bone definition and example
    • Cuboidal. Length = width
    • Usually 6 surfaces;
    • 4 or less articular and 2 or more for tendon/ligament attachment or vessel entry
    • Carpal bone
  150. Flat bone definition and example
    • Thin
    • 2 plats of compact bone with spongy bone and marrow between them
    • Most fat bones help to for the walls of cavities
    • bones of calavaria and sternum
  151. Irregular bone definition and example
    • Various shape
    • Vary in amounts o f compact bone and spongy bone
    • Vertebra
  152. Sesamoid bone
    • Round or oval
    • Develops in tendons
    • Often round where tendons cross the end of llong bones in limbs (protects tendons from excessive wear and change angle of tends as it passes to attachment point)
    • Patella
  153. Sutural or wormian bone
    • Small bone within the sutures of certain cranial bones
    • Accessory bones
  154. Heterotrophic bone
    • Not part o the make skeleton
    • Ma develop in certain soft tissues and organs due to disease
    • May form in scars and with chronic inflammation
    • TB � bony tissue in lungs
  155. Diaphysis is found what?
    • Shaft
    • Yellow bone marrow
  156. Epiphysis is found where and is what?
    Ends of long bones and is red bone marrow
  157. Metaphysis is?
    Where the epiphysis meets the diaphysis
  158. Articular cartilage is
    Hyaline cartilage on the articular surface
  159. What is endosteum?
    • � Thin membrane that lines medullary cavity and canals
    • � Osteoblasts, osteogrenic cells, osteoclasts and reticular fibers
    • � Repair
  160. What is the periosteum?
    • � Inner layer has osteoenic potency (osteoblasts present)
    • � Growth and repair
    • � Outer layer is dense fibrous CT structure
    • � Absent on articular surface
  161. Line, definition, function, specific example.
    • Straight linear elevation
    • Attachment site
    • Intertrochanteric line
  162. Ridge, definition, function, specific example.
    • Similar to a line, may be more pronounced
    • Attachment site
    • Medial supracondylar ridge
  163. Crest, definition, function, and specific example.
    • Very prominent linear elevation
    • Attachment site
    • Iliac crest
  164. Tuberacle , definition, function, specific example.
    • Small raised eminence
    • Attachment site
    • Greater tuberacle
  165. protuberance, definition, function, specific example.
    • Swelling or knob
    • Attachment site
    • External occipital protuberance
  166. Tuberosity , definition, function, specific example.
    • Large, round usually roughened elevation
    • Attachment site
    • Tibia tuberosity
  167. Mallelous, definition, function, specific example.
    • Hammerhead-like elevation
    • Attachment site
    • Medial malleolus
  168. Trochanter, definition, function, specific example.
    • Large blunt elevation; only on femur
    • Attachment site
    • Greater trochanter
  169. Spine , definition, function, specific example.
    • Sharp, slender process
    • Attachment site
    • Ischia spine
  170. Process, definition, function, specific example.
    • Prominence or projection
    • Forms joints and attachment sites
    • Transverse process
  171. Facet, definition, function, specific example.
    • Small, smooth, fat areas or surfaces
    • Forms joints
    • Articular facet for the rib on a thoracic vertebra
  172. Condyle , definition, function, specific example.
    • Large rounder articular prominence
    • Forms joints
    • Media condyle of femur
  173. Head, definition, function, specific example.
    • Rounded articular projection supposed on a constricted portion
    • Forms joints
    • Head of humerus
  174. Fossa, definition, function, specific example.
    • Shallow depression
    • Passageway; forms joints
    • Olecranon Fossa
  175. Sulcus or grove, definition, function, specific example.
    • Long furrow or ditch like depression
    • Passageway
    • Intertubercular grove
  176. notch, definition, function, specific example.
    • Indentation at the edge of a bone
    • Passageway; forms joints
    • Ulnar notch
  177. Foramen, definition, function, specific example.
    • Hole
    • Passageway
    • Mental foramen
  178. Canal definition, function, specific example.
    • Foramen that has length;; has an orifice at each end
    • Passageway
    • Hypoglossal canal
  179. Meatus , definition, function, specific example.
    • Tube like passageway that enters a structure but does not pass thought it
    • Passageway
    • External auditory meatus
  180. Fissure, definition, function, specific example.
    • Narrow, cleft like opening between adjacent parts of bones
    • Passageway
    • Superior orbital fissure
  181. Epicondyle, definition, function, specific example.
    • Prominence above a condyle
    • Attachment site
    • Medial epicondle of the humerus
  182. Paranasal sinus, definition, function, specific example.
    • Air filled cavity within a bone; connected to the nasal cavity
    • Produces mucus; lightens the skull bones; acts a s resonant chamber for sound
    • Frontal sinus
  183. Ramus, definition, function, specific example.
    • Projecting part of elongated process of a bone.
    • Attachment site
    • Mandibular ramus
  184. What does the axial skeleton incude?
    • � Vertebral column
    • � Skull
    • � Hyoid bone
    • � Ribs and sternum
    • � Auditory ossicles
  185. Types of vertebrae?
    • True or movable
    • Fixed or false
  186. Name the true or movable vertebra, its location and how many there are.
    • Cervical � neck � 7
    • Thoracic � chest � 12
    • Lumbar � lower back � 5
  187. Name the false or fixed vertebra , the location and how many there are.
    • Sacral � sacrum � 5 fuse to form 1
    • Coccygeal � coccyx � 4 fuse to form 1
  188. What are primary curvatures?
    Present during fetal development
  189. What do primary curvatures include?
    Thoracic curvature and perice or sacral curvature
  190. What are secondary curvature?
    Develop postnatal
  191. What do secondary curvatures incude?
    Cervical curvature and lumbar curvature
  192. Cervical curvature characteristics
    • Anteriorly convex
    • Develops when a child can hold its head up(3-4mos) and sit upright (9mos)
  193. Lumbar curvature
    • Anteriorly convex
    • Develops when a child beings to walk
    • More often pronounced in females
  194. Why might abnormal spine curvatures occur?
    Defect, disease, pore posture, unequal pull on vertebra column
  195. What is kyphosis?
    • Hunchback
    • Dorsally exaggerated thoracic curve
  196. What is lordosis?
    • Sway back
    • Exaggerated lumbar curve
  197. What is scoliosis?
    • �twisted� disease
    • Exaggerated lateral curve
    • Primarily in thoracic area.
  198. Ligaments include:
    • Anterior longitudinal ligament
    • Posterior longitudinal ligament
    • Ligament flavum
  199. Describe anterior longitudinal ligament
    • Strong fibrous CT band that runs longitudinally along the anterior surfaces of the intervertebral discs and vertebral centre � firmly fixed
    • Atlas and base of skull ? pelvis surface or sacrum
    • Prevents hyperflection of vertebral column
    • If severely stretched in neck = whiplash
  200. Describe posterior longitudinal ligaments?
    • Narrow fibrous CT band that runs longitudinally along the posterior surfaces of interveterbral discs
    • Somewhat weaker then the anterior longitudinal ligament � loosely attached
    • Atlas to sacrum inside the vertebral column
    • Prevents hyperflection of vertebral column
    • Describe Ligamen flavum?
    • Broad, fibrous (elastic) CT bands joining laminae of adjacent vertebra
    • Axis to sacrum
    • Helps to preserve upright posture
  201. Intervertebreal disc is a ?
    Cushion like pad between vertebrae
  202. Anulus fibrosus
    • Concentric layers of fibrocartilage
    • Holds adjacent vertebrae together, proved stability, and limits the expansion of the nucleus pulposus
  203. Nucleus pulposus
    • Gelatinous core of intevertebral disc
    • Acts as a shock absorber (becomes broader when compressed)
  204. Note: herniated (prolapsed) disc =
    Rupture of annulus and protrusion of nucleus
  205. What is a centrum (body)
    • Largest part
    • Anterior directed
    • Superior and inferior surfaces are roughened for disc attachment
  206. Verebral foraman?
    • Opening posterior to centrum on a single vertebra.
    • When foramina are in series the vertebral canal is formed � houses spinal cord
  207. Vertebral arch (neural)?
    Ach of bone that bridges the vertebral foramen posteriorly
  208. Vertebral arch consists of what parts?
    • Pedicles
    • Aminae
  209. What is a pedicle?
    Bases or sides of the vertebral arch
  210. What is a laminae?
    Roof of the arch
  211. What are the processes on a typical vertebrae?
    • Spinous process
    • Transverse process
    • Articular process
  212. What is the spinous process?
    • Projects posterior from the midline of the neural arch
    • Arises as the junction of the laminae
  213. What is the transverse process?
    Projects laterally from the point where each lamina meets its pedicle.
  214. What is the superior articular process?
    • Projects cranially
    • Each has an articular facet 9smooth joint surface on the articular process)
  215. What is the inferior articular process?
    • Projects caudally
    • Each has articular facet (smooth joint surface on the articular process)
  216. The inferior articular process of one vertebra articulates with the superior articular process of the vertebra below.
  217. Superior vertebra notch
    Constrict on the superior border of the pedicle
  218. Inferior vertebra notch
    Constricts on the inferior border of the pedicle
  219. The intervebral foramen serves as?
    A place for the spinal nerves to pass thought
  220. Points of articulation on vertebra
    • Superior articular process � 5th lumbar vertebra
    • Apex of sacrum - coccyx
    • Auricular surfaces � illium of os coxa
    • Articular lateral surface � sacroiliac joint
  221. Dorsal surface ridges: Medial sacral crest
    Midline formed by fusion of spinous process
  222. Dorsal surface ridges: Lateral sacra crest:
    Lateralmost; remnant of transverse process
  223. Intermediate sacral crest
    • In between represents fused articular processes
    • Just medial to dorsa sacral foramina
  224. What is the Dorsa Sacral Foramina?
    A series of openings between the intermediate sacral crest and lateral sacral crest
  225. What is the sacral hiatus?
    an upside down V shaped opening at the inferior end; point where lower laminae failed to fuse
  226. What is the sacral promontory?
    Projection from anterosuperior edge of the centrum of the first sacral vertebra
  227. What is the ventral (pelvic) sacral foramina?
    A series of openings that face anteriorly
  228. What is the transverse lines (ridges)
    Series of ridges; represents function lines for sacral vertebrae
  229. What is the sacral canal?
    • Continuation of the vertebral canal into the sacrum; deep to the medial sacral crest
    • Sacral hiatus at the inferior end of sacral canal
  230. What is the coccyx?
    • Tail bone
    • Provides attachment site for muscles of the perineum and Gluteal group
  231. What is the bony thorax?
    Bony cage formed by sternum, ribs, costal cartilages, and centra of thoracic vertebra.
  232. Name the components of the sternum.
    • � Manubrium
    • � Body
    • � Xiphoid process
    • � Juguar notch
    • � Clavicular notch
    • � Cotal notches
    • � Sternal angle
  233. What are the components of the rib?
    • � Head, superior and inferior articular facets.
    • � Neck
    • � Tubercle with articular facet
    • � Angle of rib
    • � Body of rib
    • � Costal grove
    • � Costal end
  234. How to tell if the rib is the right or the left one?
    Grove needs to be down and in.
  235. Skull is held together by which bones?
    • Flat bones
    • Irregular bones
  236. What are flat bones?
    • Held together by sutures
    • Form cranium
  237. What are irregular bones?
    • United by sutures
    • Form face and base of cranium
  238. Name the 8 cranial bones.
    Occipital bone, parietal bones(2), frontal bone, temporal bones (2), sphenoid, ethmoid.
  239. What is the calvaria (�cranial vault� =
    • � Skull cap
    • � Skull lacking the lower jaw and facial portion
    • � Forms the forehead & superior, lateral, and posterior parts of the skull
  240. Cranial base or floor
    Caranial fossae (3) are here
  241. Name the 14 facial bones
    Maxillary bones (2), palatine bones (2), Nasal bones (2), inferior nasal conchae (2), zygomatic bones (2), lacimal bones (2), vomer, mandible.