Medical Term

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nbennett
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Medical Term
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2011-02-25 13:19:19
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  1. aden/o
    gland
  2. aut/o
    self
  3. cutane/o
    skin
  4. cyan/o
    blue
  5. derm/o, dermat/o
    skin
  6. follicul/o
    folllicle
  7. kerat/o
    horny tissue
  8. onych/o
    nail
  9. seb/o
    sebum, oil
  10. The _______ system forms the entire surface area of the body. It is dominated by the largest organ of the body; the sking. The skin is composed of two distinct layers: an inner, deep layer composed of connective tissue known as the dermis, and an outer layer of epithelium called the epidermis.
    integumentary
  11. The term dermis means "skin," and the term __________ means "on top of skin."
    epidermis
  12. The integumentary systme also includes smaller accessory organs embedded within the skin, such as ____________.
    hair follicles, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and sensory receptores.
  13. _______________ is provided against outside temperature changes, dehydration, and infectious microorganisms that may cause diesase.
    Protection
  14. As the outermost organ of the body, the skin is more exposed to the extremes of the external environment than any other __________, subjecting it to temperature fluctuations, physical injury, and invasion by unwanted microorganisms.
    organ
  15. Many types of inherited and acquired diseases may also afflict the __________.
    skin
  16. The _________ that it provides to your overall health is significant: a loss of skin can lead to severe consequences due to dehydration and infection, even death.
    Protection
  17. Dermatology
    The medical field that specializes in the health and disease of the integumentary system.
  18. Abrasion
    A common injury to the skin caused by scraping produces a superficial wound
  19. Abscess
    A localized elevation of the skin containing a cavity, which is a sign of a local infection. This cavity contains a mixture of bacteria, white blood cells, damaged tissue, and fluids collectively known as pus and is surrounded by inflamed tissue.
  20. Production of pus.
    • Suppuration
    • Purulence
    • Pyogenesis
  21. Cellulite
    A local uneven surface of the skin and is a sign of subcutaneous fat deposition.
  22. Cicatrix
    • A clinical term for "scar."
    • A latin word that means "scar."
    • Plural form is cicatrices
  23. Comedo
    • The clinical term for "pimple."
    • It is a local elevation of the skin arising from the buildup of oil from sebaceous (oil) glands.
    • Plural form: comedones
  24. Contusion
    Bruise; a discoloration and swelling of the skin that is symptomatic of an injury, such as a blow to the body. A common symptom following a physical trauma, such as an automobile accident.
  25. Cyanosis
    it is a blue tinge of color to an area of the skin and is a sign of a cardiovascular disturbance. Usually apparent most clearly in the lips and fingertips.
  26. Cyst
    A closed sac or pouch on the surface of the skin that is filled with liquid or semisold material.
  27. Edema
    The clinical term for fluid accumulation. Caused by leakage of fluid across capillary walls. A common sign of injury and infection.
  28. Erythema
    • The Greek word for "blush"
    • Any redness of the skin.
    • It is a common sign of injury or infection.
  29. Fissure
    The clinical term for a narrow break or slit in the skin.
  30. Furuncle
    When an abscess is associated with a hair follicle, the local swelling on the skin is called this.
  31. Induration
    A local hard area on the skin, or perhaps elsewhere in the body. Usually a sign of an excessive deposit of collagen or calcium.
  32. Jaundice
    An abnormal yellow coloration of the skin and eyes. A sign of liver or gallbladder disease. The yellowing results from an abnormal release of bile pigments by the liver.
  33. Keloid
    An overgrowth of scar tissue that forms an elevated lesion on the skin. It is often discolored, which sets it apart from adjacent, normal skin.
  34. Laceration
    The common result of an injury caused by a tear or perhaps a cut by a sharp object with an irregular surface.
  35. Macule
    A discolored flat spot on the skin surface, such as a freckle.
  36. Nevus
    A pigmented spot that is commonly called a mole.
  37. Melanoma
    Suspect malignancy
  38. Pallor
    • An abnormally pale color of the skin.
    • A sign of an internal condition causing a decreased flow of blood to the skin.
  39. Papule
    A general term describing any small, solid elevation on the skin.
  40. Petechia
    A sign of a circulatory disorder. It occurs when a small blood vessel supplying the dermis of the skin ruptures. A small red dot on the skin.
  41. Pruritus
    The symptom of itchy skin.
  42. Purpura
    A symptom of purple-red skin discoloration. Usually the result of a hemorrhage (broken blood vessel) that spreads blood through the skin.
  43. Pustule
    A general term for an elevated are of the skin filled with pus.
  44. Ulcer
    An erosion through the skin or mucous membrane.
  45. Decubitus
    A common form of ulcer arsises from lack of movement when lying supine for an extended period of time.
  46. Urticaria
    A common allergic skin reaction to medications, foods, infection, or injury produces small fluid-filled skin elevations.
  47. Verruca
    • A wart is a sign of infection by a papilloma virus.
    • An effort by the skin to rid itself of the virus and is observed as a skin elevation with a thickened epidermis.
  48. Vesicle
    A small elevation of the epidermis that is filled with fluid.
  49. Wheal
    • A temporary, itchy elevation of the sking, often with a white center and red perimeter.
    • A symptom of an allergic reaction of the skin.
  50. ec-
    outside, out
  51. Par-
    alongside, abnormal
  52. actin/o
    radiation
  53. Aden/o
    Gland
  54. Albin/o
    White
  55. Carcin/o
    Cancer
  56. Cellul/o
    Small cell
  57. Chym/o
    Juice
  58. Crypt/o
    Hidden
  59. Derm/o, dermat/o
    skin
  60. Follicul/o
    Small follicle
  61. Hidr/o
    Sweat
  62. Kerat/o
    Horny Tissue
  63. Leuk/o
    White
  64. Melan/o
    Black
  65. Myc/o
    Fungus
  66. Onych/o
    Nail
  67. Pedicul/o
    Body louse
  68. Scler/o
    Thick, hard
  69. Trich/o
    Hair
  70. Xer/o
    Dry
  71. -a
    singular
  72. -ia
    condition of
  73. -ic
    pertaining to
  74. -ism
    Condition
  75. -itis
    inflammation
  76. -malacia
    Softening
  77. -oma
    Tumor
  78. -osis
    Condition of
  79. -pathy
    Disease
  80. -rrhea
    Excessive discharge
  81. Acne
    • An uncomfortable condition of the skin resulting from bacterial infection of sebaceous glands and ducts.
    • Characterized by the presence of numerous open comedones and closed comedones in affected to parts of the face and also often involves the neck, back, and chest.
    • The most common skin disease of adolescence, due to the rapid growth of sebaceous glands during this period of life.
  82. Actinic Keratosis
    A precancerous condition of the skin caused by exposure to sunlight. It forms skin lesions resulting from overgrowth of the epdiermis, usually with scaly surfaces.
  83. Albinism
    A genetic condition characterized by the reduction of the pigment melanin in the skin.
  84. Albino
    Refers to the person affected with albinism.
  85. Alopecia
    • A loss or lack of scalp hair is a clinical sign known as baldness.
    • May be a sign of infection of the scalp, high fevers, drug reactions, or emotional stress.
  86. Male-Pattern Baldness
    The result of a genetically controlled factor that prevents the development of hiar follicles in certain areas of the scalp.
  87. Burn
    An injury to the skin caused by excessive exposure to fire, electricity, chemicals, or sunlight.
  88. Total Body Surface Area
    The level of injury caused is determined by the amount of surface area damaged and the depth of the damage.
  89. Classifications of Burns
    • Partial Thickness
    • Full Thickness
    • Deep
  90. Carbuncle
    A skin infection composed of a cluster of boils.
  91. Carcinoma
    cancer that affects the skin.
  92. Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carinoma
    Tumors arising from the epidermis that usually remain localized, although the lesions do spread and can become serious if they are not treated.
  93. Melanoma
    Third major form of skin cancer.
  94. Cellulitis
    An inflammation of the connective tissue in the dermis. Caused by an infection that spreads from the skin surface or hair follicles to the dermis and sometimes the subcutaneous tissue.
  95. Folliculitis
    Inflammation of little follicles
  96. Dermatitis
    A generalized inflammation of the skin, involving edema of the dermis.
  97. Contact Dermatitis
    Caused by physical contact with a triggering substance.
  98. Seborrheic Dermatitis
    An inherited form characterized by excessive sebum productions.
  99. Actinic Dermatitis
    Caused by sunlight exposure.
  100. Eczema
    A superficial form of dermatitis, with flakiness of the epidermis as the primary sign.
  101. Ecchymosis
    A condition of the skin caused by leaking blood vessels in the dermis, producing purplish patches of purpura larger in size than petechiae.
  102. Herpes
    A skin eruption producing clusters of deep blisters.
  103. Oral Herpes
    Caused by herpes virus type 1.
  104. Gential Herpes
    Caused by herpes type 2.
  105. Shingles
    caused by the herpes zoster virus.
  106. Hidradenitis
    The individaul suffers from excessive perspiration. It is due to the imflammation of sweat glands, which can bcome worsened by bacterial infection.
  107. Impetigo
    A contagious skin infection. It is often caused by bacteria and is characterized by the presence of golden crusts following the rupture of the vesicles.
  108. Kaposi's Sarcoma
    A form of skin cancer arising from the connective tissue of the dermis. It is indicated by the presence of brown or purple patches on the skin and appears among some elderly patients. Also a common condition associated with HIV infection and AIDS.
  109. Leukoderma
    As some people age, their skin becomes lighter in color due to reduced activity of the pigment-producing cells in the skin, the melanocytes.
  110. Melanoma
    Constructed term which literally means "black tumor." Once established in the skin, the tumor grows rapidly and metastasizes.
  111. Malignant Melanoma
    The most life-threatening skin cancer.
  112. Onychocryptosis
    A nail conition where a nail becomes buried in the skin due to abnormal growth. Commonly called an "ingrown nail."
  113. Onychopathy
    A disease of the nail
  114. Onychomalacia
    A nail is abnormally soft.
  115. Onychomycosis
    A fungal infection of one or more nails.
  116. Paronychia
    An infection around the nail.
  117. Pediculosis
    Mostly occurs on the scalp, where it is called head lice, but it may also be found in the pubic region and other parts of the body. Can be treated effectively with medicated shampoo.
  118. Psoriasis
    • A painful, chronic disease of the skin characterized by the presence of red lesions covered with slivery epidermal scales.
    • Believed to be an inherited inflammatory disease of the skin.
  119. Scabies
    • A skin eruption caused by the female itch mite, which burrows into the skin to extract blood.
    • Produces the symptoms of dermatitis, such as erythema, swelling, and pruritus.
  120. Scleroderma
    An abnorml thickening or hardness of the skin, caused by overproduction of collagen in the dermis.
  121. Systemic Lupus Erthematosus
    A chronic, progressive disease of connective tissue in many organs including the skin. The early stages are often commonly referred to as just lupus; marked by red patches on the skin of the face and joint pain.
  122. Tinea
    • A fungal infection of the skin.
    • Often called "ringworm."
  123. Tinea Capitis
    Forms on the scalp and can lead to alopecia.
  124. Tinea Capitis
    Forms on the feet and is also known as athelete's foot.
  125. Tinea Corporis
    Can occur elsewhere on the body.
  126. Trichomycosis
    • A general term for a disease affecting the hair.
    • A fungal infection of hiar.
  127. Xeroderma
    Characterized by abnormally dry skin. It is caused by hyposecretion (abnormally low secretion) of the oil glands and is an inherited condition.
  128. Abras/o
    To rub away.
  129. Aut/o
    Self
  130. Rhytid/o
    Wrinkle
  131. -ectomy
    Surgical removal
  132. -ion
    process
  133. -plasty
    Surgical repair
  134. -tome
    A cutting instrument
  135. Biopsy
    • A minor surgery involving the removal of tissue for evaluation.
    • Abbreviated bx.
    • Usually a necessary step toward making a diagnosis of a suspected tumor of the skin.
  136. Debridement
    • A procedure to clean a wound.
    • Involves excision of foreign matter and unwanted tissue.
  137. Dermabrasion
    • A form of cosmetic surgery, in which the skin is surgically changed to improve appearance.
    • Abrasives similar to sandpaper are used to remove unwatned scars and other elevations, and may also be used to remove tattoos.
  138. Chemical Peels
    Alternative to dermabrasion, in which a chemical agent is used to remove the outer epidermal layer to treat acne, wrinkles, and sun-damaged skin.
  139. Dermatoautoplasty
    • Also called an autograft.
    • A skin graft.
  140. Dermatoherteroplasty
    A skin graft using skin from another person.
  141. Dermatome
    • An instrument used to cut thin slices of skin for grafting.
    • May also be used to excise (surgically remove) small skin lesions.
  142. Dermatoplasty
    • General term for a surgical procedure of the skin.
    • Skin tissue is transplanted to the body surface.
  143. Emollient
    A chemical agent that softens or smooths to the skin.
  144. Antibiotics
    Used to manage infections, such as acne and carbuncles.
  145. Retinoids
    May also be used to manage certain forms of acne because they cause the upper layers of the epidermis to slough away.
  146. Plastic Surgery
    A popular form of skin treatment, which is used for skin repair following a major injury, correction of a congenital defect, or cosmetic improvement.
  147. Rhytidoplasty
    Plastic surgeries that surgically repair skin wrinkles.
  148. Liposuction
    The removal of subcutaneous fat by the insertion of a device that applies a vacuum to pull the fat tissue out of the body.
  149. Arthr/o, Articul/o
    Joint
  150. Burs/o
    Purse or sac, bursa
  151. Carp/o
    Wrist
  152. Chondr/o
    Gristle, cartilage
  153. Condyl/o
    Knuckle of a joint
  154. Cost/o
    Rib
  155. Cran/o, Crani/o
    Skull, cranium
  156. Fasci/o
    Fascia
  157. Femor/o
    Thigh, femur
  158. Fibr/o
    Fiber
  159. Fibul/o
    Fibula
  160. ili/o
    Flank, hip, groin, ilium of the pelvis
  161. ischi/o
    Haunch, hip joint, ischium
  162. Menisci/o
    meniscus
  163. Muscul/o
    My/o
    Myos/o
    Muscle
  164. Myel/o
    Bone Marrow
  165. Oste/o
    Bone
  166. Pariet/o
    Wall
  167. Patell/o
    Patella
  168. Petr/o
    Stone
  169. Phalang/o
    Phalanges
  170. Phys/o
    Growth
  171. Pub/o
    Pubis
  172. Radi/o
    Radius
  173. sacr/o
    sacrum
  174. Skelet/o
    skeleton
  175. Spondyl/o, Vertebr/o
    Vertebra
  176. Stern/o
    Chest, sternum
  177. Synov/o, synovi/o
    Synovial
  178. Tars/o
    tarsal bone
  179. Ten/o, tendon/o
    Tendon
  180. Musculoskeletal
    Combination of the skeletal and muscular systems.
  181. Bones
    Composed of mainly connective tissue receiving blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. Function in the support of soft internal orgnas, the sotrage of mineral salts including calcium and phosphorous, and the production of blood cells within the red bone marrow, in addition to serving as an attachment site for muscles.
  182. Orthopedic
    The branch of medicine that focuses on the diseases of the skeletal and muscular system.
  183. Orthopedist
    A physician that specializes in the diseases of the skeletal and muscular systems.
  184. a-
    without
  185. brady-
    slow
  186. dys-
    Bad, abnormal, painful, difficult
  187. hyper-
    excessive, abnormally high, above
  188. Kineis/o
    Motion
  189. My/o
    Muscle
  190. tax/o
    reaction to a stimulus, movement
  191. Troph/o
    Development
  192. -algia, -dynia
    Condition of pain
  193. -a
    singular
  194. -ia
    condition of
  195. -y
    Process of
  196. Arthralgia
    • Condition of joint pain.
    • This is often the first symptom of joint or bone disease.
  197. Ataxia
    • The inability to coordinate muscles during a voluntray activity.
    • A sign of a nervous system disorder that is often inherited.
  198. Atrophy
    Lack of movement and development which reduces the muscle strength.
  199. Bradykinesia
    An abnormally slow movement is a clinical sign of an underlying bone, muscle, or nervous disorder.
  200. Decalcification
    • The abnormal reduction of calcium in bone
    • Can be treated with a combination of hormonal therapy, a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, and mild exercise.
  201. Dyskinesia
    Difficulty in movement
  202. Dystrophy
    A general term to descrie a deformity arising during development
  203. Hypertrophy
    The sign of excessive muscle growth or development.
  204. Myalgia
    • A common symptom of strenuous exercise.
    • Muscle pain
  205. Tenodynia
    • Tendon pain
    • A common symptom of "weekend athletes"
  206. Epi-
    upon, over, above, or on top
  207. Para-
    alongside or abnormal
  208. Poly-
    Many
  209. Quadri-
    Four
  210. Ankyl/o
    Crooked
  211. Arthr/o
    Joint
  212. Carcin/o
    Cancer
  213. Kyph/o
    Hump
  214. Lord/o
    Bent forward
  215. Por/o
    Hole
  216. Sarc/o
    flesh or meat
  217. Scoli/o
    Curved
  218. -asthenia
    Weakness
  219. -cele
    Hernia, swelling, protrusion
  220. -emia
    Condition of blood
  221. -genesis
    orgin, cause
  222. -itis
    Inflammation
  223. -malacia
    softening
  224. -oma
    tumor
  225. -osis
    condition of
  226. -plasia
    formation or growth
  227. -plegia
    parlysis
  228. -ptosis
    drooping
  229. Achondroplasia
    Without cartilage formation
  230. Dwarf
    An individual with abnormally short limbs and stature.
  231. Ankylosis
    • "Condition of crooked."
    • Joints are abnomrally stiff and movement is difficult.
    • A condition that may follow another disease, such as arthitis, which may damage the joint structure.
  232. Arthritis
    • The general disorder resulting in inflammation and degeneration of a joint.
    • Joint inflammation
  233. Osteoarthritis (OA)
    A common condition as people age, in which the joint structures become worn over time and gradually replaced by bone
  234. Rheumatoid Arthrisits (RA)
    An autoimmune disease in which joing structures become eroded by the action of the body's own white blood cells.
  235. Arthrochondritis
    • The articular cartilage within synovial joints undergoes inflammation, resulting in joint pain during movements.
    • Usually a temporary condition casued by a local infection.
  236. Bunion
    • An abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe.
    • Caused by an inflammation of a bursa near the big toe.
  237. Bursitis
    Inflammation of a bursa.
  238. Bursolith
    A calcium deposit within a bursa of the foot.
  239. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    It is characterized by inflammation of the wrist that causes pressure against the median nerve, resulting in local pain and restricted movement.
  240. Carpoptosis
    • "wrist drop"
    • A weakness of the wrist resulting in difficulty supporting the hand.
  241. Cramps
    Painful contractions
  242. DJD (Degenerative Joint Disease)
    • A general term describing a disease of joints in which the cartilage undergoes degeneration.
    • This type of disease is progressive, becoming worse in time.
  243. Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
    Children are occasionally born with a disease causing skeletal muscle degeneration, resulting in progressive muscle weakness
  244. Epicondylitis
    The area of the elbow that becomes inflammed, usually due to an injury
  245. Fibromyalgia
    A disease of unkown origin that produces widespread pain of musculoskeletal structures of the limbs, face, and trunk
  246. Fracture
    The clinical term for break in a bone
  247. Colles
    A break in the distal part of the radius
  248. Comminuted
    A break resulting in fragmentation of the bone.
  249. Compression
    A crushed break, often due to weight or pressure applied to a bone during a fall
  250. Displaced
    A break causing an abnormal alignment of bone pieces.
  251. Epiphyseal
    A break at the location of the growth plate, which can affect growth of the bone.
  252. Greenstick
    A slight break in a bone that appears as a slight fissure in an X-Ray.
  253. Nondisplaced
    a break in which the broken bones retain their alignment
  254. Pott's
    A break at the ankle that affects both bones of the leg.
  255. Spiral
    A spiral-shaped break often caused by twisting stresses along a long bone.
  256. Gout
    An abnormal accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints, which are waste products of protein metabolism.
  257. Herniated Disk
    • The rupture of an intervertebral disk.
    • Uusally a back injury often caused by a sudden movement or an attempt to lift a heavy object.
  258. Kyphosis
    Occurs when the upper thoracic curve bends posteriorly, causing an abnormal hump at the upper back that often accompanies osteoporsis.
  259. Lordosis
    An exaggerated anterior spinal curve in the lumbar area.
  260. Scoliosis
    A lateral curvature of the spine with a congenital origin, usually in the thoracic or lumbar regions.
  261. Marfan's Syndrome
    Congential disease that results in excessive cartilage formation at the epiphyseal plates, forming abnormally long limbs and a tall, thin body form
  262. Meniscitis
    Inflammation of a meniscus results in joint pain.
  263. Myasthenia Gravis
    Characterized by a progressive failure of muscles to respond to nerve stimulation.
  264. Myeloma
    A malignant tumor arising from tissue.
  265. Myocele
    An injury to a muslce may cause the muscle to tear through the fascia, causing a protrusion.
  266. Myositis
    A common result of muscle injury is a local inflammation
  267. Osteitis
    Inflammation of bone
  268. Paget's Disease (Osteitis Deformans)
    • Results in bone deformities due to the acceleration of bone loss.
    • Symptoms include sever bone pain and frequent fractures.
  269. Osteocarcinoma
    Bone cancer arising from epithelial tissue that has invaded a bone
  270. Osteosarcoma
    Bone cancer arising from connective tissue, usually within the bone itself.
  271. osteogenesis imperfecta
    • An inherited disease resulting in impaired bone growth and fragile bones.
    • It is progressive, leading to severe bone pain, skeletal deformities, and frequent fractures.
  272. Osteomalacia
    A disease resulting in the softening of bones.
  273. osteomyelitis
    Inflammation of the red bone marrow is a painful disease
  274. Osteoporsis
    • The abnormal loss of bone density is a common result of aging, especially among postmenopausal women.
    • Results in a loss of posture and flexibility
  275. Paraplegia
    There is a loss of sensation or voluntary movement of the area of the body below the hips, including both legs.
  276. Quadriplegia
    When all four limbs are without sensation of voluntary movement.
  277. Polymyositis
    • Inflammation of many muscles.
    • It is a condition caused caused by bacterial infection in which a group of muscles become infected and react with inflammation.
  278. Rickets
    The bones become softened due to the excessive removal of calcium for other body functinos. Caused by a lack of calcium and/or vitamin D in the diet.
  279. Rotator Cuff Injury
    A trauma to the shoulder can tear one or more tendons and muscles. Causes local, inflammation, pain, and joint dislocations.
  280. Spinal Cord Injury
    A trauma to the vertebral column
  281. Spondylarthritis
    Inflammation of joints of vertebrae.
  282. Sprain
    A tear of collagen fibers within a ligament.
  283. Strain
    Similar to a sprain but involving a muscle, usually is caused by stretching a muscle beyond its noraml range.
  284. Temporomandibular Joint Disease
    A disease of the junction of the mandible and the temporal bone, which allows the lower jaw to move when speaking and chewing.
  285. Tendonitis
    Inflammation of a tendon is a common sports injury
  286. Tenosynovitis
    A form of tendonitis that also involves inflammation of the synovial membrane surrounding the joint
  287. -centesis
    surgical puncture
  288. -clasia, -clasis
    break apart
  289. -desis
    surgical fixatoin or fusion
  290. -ectomy
    surgical removal or excision
  291. -gram
    a record or image
  292. -graphy
    recording process
  293. -iatry
    treatment or specialty
  294. -ist
    One who speaializes
  295. -lysis
    loosen or dissolve
  296. -pathy
    disease
  297. -plasty
    surgical repair
  298. -rrhaphy
    suturing
  299. -scope
    instrument, used for viewing
  300. -scorpy
    process of viewing
  301. -tic
    pertaining to
  302. -tomy
    incision or to cut
  303. Arthrocentesis
    A procedure where excess fluids are aspirated, or withdrawn by suction, through a surgical puncture into the synovial cavity of the joint.
  304. Arthroclasia
    Occasionally, an abnormally stiff joint must be broken during surgery to increase the range of motion, or ROM.
  305. Arthrodesis
    Surgical fixation of a joint
  306. Arthrogram
    X-ray of the joint after injection of contrast media, air, both to highlight the synovial joint.
  307. Arthrolysis
    a joint is loosned of abnormal restrictions, such as calcium deposits and bursoliths.
  308. Arthroplasty
    • A procedure is to repair to joint.
    • Refers to a joint replacemen, the most common of which is a hip replacement
  309. Arthroscopy
    An endoscopic visual examination of a joint uses an instrument that integrates fiber opitcs, live-action photography, and computer enhancement.
  310. Arthrotomy
    A surgical incision into the synovial cavity of a joint
  311. Bursectomy
    A surgery involving the removal of a bursa from a joint.
  312. Chiropractic
    A practitioner of the field of therapy that is centered on manipulation of bones and joints, most commonly the vertebral column.
  313. Chondrectomy
    Surgical removal, or excision, of the cartilage associated with a joint is common procedure.
  314. Chondroplasty
    Surgical repair of cartilage associated with a joint
  315. Costectomy
    A surgery involving the removal of a rib
  316. Cranioplasty
    when one or more bones of the cranium undergo repair during surgery.
  317. Craniotomy
    this is required to perform surgery of the brain. The surgeon enters the cranial cavity
  318. Diskectomy
    A surgical procedure that is used frequently to reduce the pain of a herniated disk by surgically removing the intervertebral disk.
  319. spinal fusion
    When the adjacent vertebrae are fused together following the removal of the disk
  320. Spondylosyndesis
    Surgical fixation to connect vertebrae.
  321. Laminectomy
    During which the part of a vertebra known as the lamina is surgically removed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord.
  322. Electromyography
    • The strength of a muscle contraction can be measured and recorded by a procedure.
    • It utilizes an instrument that electrically stimulates a muscle, and the resulting contraction is recorded and analyzed on a computer.
  323. Fasciotomy
    A surgical incision into the connective tissue sheath surrounding a muscle.
  324. Fracture Reduction
    Orthopedic surgeons, or orthopedists, treat fractures by aligning the broken bones to their normal positions in this procedure.
  325. Closed Fracture Reduction
    Manipulating the bone without surgery during reduction.
  326. Open Fracture Reduction
    Surgery invention is needed to align the broken area.
  327. Internal Fixation
    When pins, screws, rods, or plates may be used to stabliize the alignment.
  328. External Fixation
    • When metal rods and pins are attached from outside the skin surface.
    • Carries the advantage of avoiding the use of a plaster cast for immobilization.
  329. Myoplasty
    A muscle undergoes surgical repair.
  330. Myorrhaphy
    Muscle repair often includes suturing the torn ends together in the procedure.
  331. NSAIDs
    The most common pharmacological treatment for any condition, including inflammation or pain of muscle or bone tissue.
  332. Orthotics
    The field of medical support involving the construction and fitting of orthopedic appliances to assist a patient, such as lifts, artificial limbs, and retraction devices.
  333. Orthotist
    A specialist in orthotics
  334. Prosthesis
    The medical term for an artifical limb.
  335. Ostectomy
    The surgical removal, or excision of bone tissue
  336. Osteoclasis
    A procedure where it is necessary to break a bone purposely to correct a defect or an improperly healed fracture.
  337. Osteopathy
    A medial field that emphasizes the relationship between the musculoskeletal system and overall health with an emphasis on body alignment and nutrition.
  338. Osteoplasty
    The surgical repair of bone
  339. Podiatry
    The specialty that focuses on foot health.
  340. Podiatrist
    A healthcare professional that focuses on foot heatlh.
  341. Tenomyoplasty
    The surgical procedure involving the repair of both muscle and tendon.
  342. Tenorrhaphy
    Surgery involving the suturing of a tendon to close a tear.
  343. Tenotomy
    A tenorrhaphy usually includes this procedure. during which one or more incisions are made into the tendon.
  344. Vertebroplasty
    A surgical procedure that repairs damaged or diseased vertebrae.
  345. ACL
    Anterior cruciate ligament; a ligament that stabilizes the knee joint
  346. CTS
    Carpal tunnel syndrome
  347. DJD
    Degenerataive joint disease
  348. DMD
    Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
  349. DO
    physician specializing in osteopathy
  350. EMG
    electromyography
  351. HNP
    herniated nucleus pulposus; a herniated intervertebral disk
  352. MG
    Myasthenia gravis
  353. NSAIDs
    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  354. OA
    osteoarthritis
  355. ortho
    orthopedics
  356. RA
    rheumatoid arthritis
  357. ROM
    range of motion
  358. SCI
    Spinal Cord injury
  359. THR
    total hip replacement
  360. TKA
    Total knee arthroplasty
  361. TKR
    Total knee replacement
  362. TMJ
    temporomandibular joint
  363. Vertebrae: C1-C7
    The seven cervial vertebrae
  364. T1-T12
    the 12 thoracic vertebrae
  365. L1-L5
    The 5 lumbar vertbrae

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