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obesity risk factors (5)
- 1. heart disease
- 2. diabetes
- 3. stroke
- 4. hypertension
- 5. cancer
characteristics of hypertrophic obesity
- usually onset occurs in adulthood
- larger adipose cells
characteristics of hyperplasia obesity
- usually onset occurs during juvenile/adolecent years
- typically greater NUMBER of adipose cells
obesity vs. overweight
- obesity=excess body fat
- overweight=not necessarily excess fat; might be associated with greater lean body mass
which form of measurement is best for determining health and body composition?
a) height/weight tables
b) body mass index (BMI)
c) % body fat
c) % body fat
Amount ($) spent of heath care / year due to obesity?
$$$/yr healthy vs. obese?
Americans spend ~$147 billion on healthcare/ year due to obesity
- $3,400 / year avg. heathly person
- $4,900 / year avg. obese person
25 - 29.9
affects appetite; damage to hypothalumus ≈ overeating
low thyroid hormone levels
- 25~40% weight related to genetics
- 60% genetics related to WHERE fat is distributed on the body
- prone to increased weight
- unprotected from weight gain
Minimal body fat (men and women)
Healthy body fat (men and women)
Increased risk body fat (men and women)
Characteristics of abdominal/central/"apple" body fat distribution?
- ↑ risk CAD, HTN, TYPE II DM
- higher turnover rate/ easier to use/lose/ ↑mobilization
- bigger fat cells
characteristics of lower body/"pear"
doesn't mobilize as easily/quickly
How does Yo-Yo dieting generally affect fat distribution?
Fat typically redistributes centrally
↓ caloric intake sequence 1-5
- 1. smaller portions/change eating habits
- 2. structured diet
- 3. appetite suppressents
- 4. wire jaw shut
- 5. gastric bypass surgery
↑ calorie expenditure sequence 1-3
- 1. ↑ daily activity
- 2. exercise program
- 3. thermogenic drugs
How does serotonin deficiency (neurotransmitter) affect weight/caloric intake?
bonus: what condition is serotonin deficiency linked to?
individual eats(↑) carbs → releases insulin→ tryptophan→seratonin (i.e. ↑carbs = ↑seratonin)
Linked to depression; Rx "Menedia" treats deficiency
what do most appetite suppressants do?
act on the nervous system by ↑noepenephrine levels
what do most "reduce fat absorption" medications do?
↓ fat absorption in the GI tract
What does the assessment include?
- Medical and weight histories
- Nutrition and eating habits
- Body Composition
- GXT; pending risk factors
concerns when working with obese ind!
- ↓ functional capacity
- hypertensive response to excercise
- F 5~7 d/wk
- I 40-50% HRR
- T 30-60 min/day
- T larger muscle groups, aerobic
- ↑ /optimize energy expenditure
- ↓ / minimize compliance (should enjoy it)
What are special considerations for obese populations? (1-4)
- 1. injury prevention (low/no impact/whater)
- 2. equipment modifications (seat sizes/ tredmill limits)
- 3. risk of hyperthermia (fat is an insulator)
- 4. compliance (address plateaus, focus on impr. health vs. weight loss)