obesity

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Author:
JenniNyla
ID:
68157
Filename:
obesity
Updated:
2011-02-28 16:10:57
Tags:
obesity physiology exercise
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Description:
clinical exercise physiology, obesity
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  1. obesity risk factors (5)
    • 1. heart disease
    • 2. diabetes
    • 3. stroke
    • 4. hypertension
    • 5. cancer
  2. characteristics of hypertrophic obesity
    • usually onset occurs in adulthood
    • larger adipose cells
  3. characteristics of hyperplasia obesity
    • usually onset occurs during juvenile/adolecent years
    • typically greater NUMBER of adipose cells
  4. obesity vs. overweight
    • obesity=excess body fat
    • overweight=not necessarily excess fat; might be associated with greater lean body mass
  5. which form of measurement is best for determining health and body composition?
    a) height/weight tables
    b) body mass index (BMI)
    c) % body fat
    c) % body fat
  6. Amount ($) spent of heath care / year due to obesity?

    $$$/yr healthy vs. obese?
    Americans spend ~$147 billion on healthcare/ year due to obesity

    • $3,400 / year avg. heathly person
    • $4,900 / year avg. obese person
  7. BMI: underweight
    < 18.5
  8. BMI: normal
    18.5 - 24.9
  9. BMI: overweight
    25 - 29.9
  10. BMI: obese
    ≥ 30
  11. Hypothalamic
    affects appetite; damage to hypothalumus ≈ overeating
  12. Endocrine
    low thyroid hormone levels
  13. Genetic
    • 25~40% weight related to genetics
    • 60% genetics related to WHERE fat is distributed on the body
    • prone to increased weight
    • unprotected from weight gain
  14. Minimal body fat (men and women)
    • Men 5%
    • Women 8-13%
  15. Healthy body fat (men and women)
    • Men 10-25%
    • Women 20-32%
  16. Increased risk body fat (men and women)
    • Men > 25%
    • Women > 32%
  17. Characteristics of abdominal/central/"apple" body fat distribution?
    • ↑ risk CAD, HTN, TYPE II DM
    • higher turnover rate/ easier to use/lose/ ↑mobilization
    • bigger fat cells
  18. characteristics of lower body/"pear"
    doesn't mobilize as easily/quickly
  19. How does Yo-Yo dieting generally affect fat distribution?
    Fat typically redistributes centrally
  20. ↓ caloric intake sequence 1-5
    • 1. smaller portions/change eating habits
    • 2. structured diet
    • 3. appetite suppressents
    • 4. wire jaw shut
    • 5. gastric bypass surgery
  21. ↑ calorie expenditure sequence 1-3
    • 1. ↑ daily activity
    • 2. exercise program
    • 3. thermogenic drugs
  22. How does serotonin deficiency (neurotransmitter) affect weight/caloric intake?

    bonus: what condition is serotonin deficiency linked to?
    individual eats(↑) carbs → releases insulin→ tryptophan→seratonin (i.e. ↑carbs = ↑seratonin)

    Linked to depression; Rx "Menedia" treats deficiency
  23. what do most appetite suppressants do?
    act on the nervous system by ↑noepenephrine levels
  24. what do most "reduce fat absorption" medications do?
    ↓ fat absorption in the GI tract

    example: Zenecal
  25. What does the assessment include?
    • Medical and weight histories
    • Nutrition and eating habits
    • Body Composition
    • GXT; pending risk factors
  26. concerns when working with obese ind!
    • hyperthermia
    • ↓ functional capacity
    • hypertensive response to excercise
  27. programing: FITT

    GOALS?!
    progress to..

    • F 5~7 d/wk
    • I 40-50% HRR
    • T 30-60 min/day
    • T larger muscle groups, aerobic

    • ↑ /optimize energy expenditure
    • ↓ / minimize compliance (should enjoy it)
    • 300-500cal/day
  28. What are special considerations for obese populations? (1-4)
    • 1. injury prevention (low/no impact/whater)
    • 2. equipment modifications (seat sizes/ tredmill limits)
    • 3. risk of hyperthermia (fat is an insulator)
    • 4. compliance (address plateaus, focus on impr. health vs. weight loss)

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