Child Growth

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Child Growth
2011-02-22 15:48:24

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  1. Development is Defined as:
    systemic continuties and changes in the individual from conception to death
  2. Causes of development are:
    • Maturation : Biological development
    • Learning: when our experiences produce changes
  3. The domains of development are:
    • Cognitive
    • Physical
    • Emotional and Social
  4. The defining themes in development include:
    • Source ( Nature/ Nurture)
    • Continuity ( Continuous/ Discontinuous)
    • Stability/Plasticity (Fixed/ Modifiable)
    • Role of indiciduals (Active/ Passive)
  5. Four developmental prespectives include:
    • Biological
    • Environmental
    • Active adaptation
    • Cultural contextualism
  6. Biological determinism states that:
    Key theorist is:
    • develipment is stimulated and rooted in our genetic code ( nature. discontinuous and it is a passive fixed process)
    • Freud
  7. Environmental shaping:
    • Development is stimulated only by environment (nurture, continuous, modifiable and passive)
    • Watson learning theory
  8. Active Adaptation:
    • Individual is an active agent ( nature and nurture, discontinuous, modifiable and active)
    • Piaget
  9. Cultural contextualism:
    • development is socially motivated. ( nurture,continiuous, modifiable and active)
    • Vygotsky
  10. Theroy:
    orderly intefrated evidance based set of statements that describes, explains and predicts behavior.
  11. The three parts of personality as Freud suggest are:
    • Id (largets portion of mind, unconscious, present at birth)
    • Ego (conscious, rational part of mind, emerges in early infancy)
    • Superego(tje cpmscoemce. develops from ages 3-6)
  12. what are Freud's psychosexual stages:
    • Oral
    • Anal
    • Phallic
    • Latency
    • Genital
  13. What are Erikson's psychosocial stages:
    • Basic trust vs. mistrust
    • Autonomy vs. shame
    • Initiative vs. guilt
    • Industry vs. inferiority
  14. Classical conditioning:
  15. Operant conditioning:
    Reinforce and punishment
  16. Social learning:
  17. Piaget's stages of cognetive development:
    • sensorimotor (acting on the world by using mouth , ears, eyes)
    • preoperational (lack of logic, however development of language and make believe play)
    • concrete operational (organizing classes and subclasses)
    • formal operational (capacity of abstract thinking)
  18. Ethology:
    • concerned with the adaptive or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history. critical period which is a limited time during which the child is biologically prepared to acuire certain adaptive behaviors.
    • sensetive period: time that is optimal for certain capacities to emarge
  19. The ecological system theory of Bronferbrenner:
    • Microsystem
    • Mesosystem
    • Exosystem
    • Macrosystem
  20. What are some ways that development can be measured:
    • self report
    • observation
    • case study
    • ethnography
    • psychophysiological method
  21. Systemic observation includes:
    • Naturalistic
    • Structured
  22. How the data is collected for systemic observation:
    • Event sampling: recording all instances of a particular behavior during specific time.
    • Time sampling: record if behavior occurs during a sample of short time intervals.
  23. Psychosocial method of gathering data:
    measures autonomic nervous system ( EEG, ERPs...)
  24. Reliability:
    consistency and repeatability of a measure. ( test-retest, inter-rater)
  25. Validity:
    • are we measuring what we said we are going to measure
    • internal validity( study conditions)
    • external validity ( generalizability)