appendages of the skin

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Author:
Mon
ID:
68206
Filename:
appendages of the skin
Updated:
2011-02-22 17:31:13
Tags:
hair skin integument system glands nails
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Description:
Appendages of the skin. hair, nails, glands, etc
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  1. What is the function of hair & hair follicles?
    protects the skin & reduces the rate at which body heat is lost
  2. What is a characteristic found in all mammals?
    hair
  3. What is Hair?
    a strand of dead highly keratinized cells that don't flake off
  4. Where is the Hair anchored & extends out of?
    The hair is anchored at the root in the dermis & extends out of skin as a shaft
  5. What does the shape of the shaft determine?
    • the shape of determines the type of hair
    • - very curly hair = flat & ribbon-like
    • - wavy hair = oval
    • - straight hair = perfectly round
  6. What are the 3 layers the shaft is composed of?
    cuticle, cortex, & medulla
  7. Why do animals have fur and humans do not?
    humans do not have fur because skin is also a sense organ & heavy hair coats reduce the amount of evaporation
  8. What is hair follicles?
    the root of the hair & the portion of hair embedded in the skin
  9. What is located deep into the dermis?
    hair bulb
  10. What does the hair bulb contain?
    nerve endings & blood vessels.
  11. What are hair follicles associated with?
    sebaceous glands & arrector pili muscle
  12. What is the rate hair grows at?
    rate of 2mm per week & under growth cycles of growth & rest which also induces shedding. the longer the growth cycle the longer the strand in general.
  13. What is sebaceous glands?
    commonly called oil glands that have an oily substance called sebum found throughout the body except palms & soles of feet.
  14. What does the sebum do?
    softens & lubricates hair, prevents skin from cracking, kills bacteria, and reduces water loss.
  15. What are the glands influenced by?
    sex hormones
  16. What is holocrine secretion?
    this excretory gland releases the subum when the glabdular cells become too full of product & burst.
  17. What is sweat glands?
    helps to reduce body heat
  18. What is another name for sweat glands?
    sudoriferous glands
  19. Where are sweat glands found?
    in all skin surfaces except nippes & external genitalia
  20. What is sweat?
    water, salts, & metabolic waste filtrated from blood by secretary cells.
  21. What are the 2 type of sweat glands?
    Eccrine & Aprocurine glands
  22. What are Eccrine Glands?
    produce true sweat, opens at a pore (not readily visible)
  23. What are aprocrine glands?
    larger than eccrine & produce a mixture of sweat, fatty substances, & proteins. This gland is what causes body odor, respiond to hormones, foreplay, and menstrual cycle changes
  24. What are ceruminous glands?
    produce ear wax
  25. What are mammary glands?
    produce milk
  26. What are Nails?
    enables us to pick objects or balance weight (toes). Nails are keratinized cells that originate at the root, rest on the nail bed, & form a free edge at the distal end of the fingers.
  27. What is the active growth area of the nails?
    the nail matrix forming the lunula (white crescent)
  28. What do the nails do laterally?
    the nail is protected nail folds (folded skin)
  29. What is the specialized nail fold called and what does it project at?
    the specialized nail fold is called the eponychium (cuticle) that projects at the proximal end.

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