Chapter 7

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Author:
jarceneaux@olhcc.edu
ID:
68209
Filename:
Chapter 7
Updated:
2011-02-22 17:48:23
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Bones Skeletal Tissues
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Bones & Skeletal Tissues
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  1. Skeletal Cartilages
    Made from cartilage, surrounded by a layer of dense irregular connective tissue card perichondrium
  2. Hyaline Cartilage
    Most abundant skeletal cartilage, includes the articular, costal, respiratory, and nasal cartilages.
  3. Elastic Cartilage
    More flexible than hyaline, is located only in the external ear, the epiglottis of the larynx, and the eustachian (auditory) tube.
  4. Fibrocartilage
    Located in areas that must withstand a great deal of pressure or strectch, such as the cartilages of the knee (menisci), and the interverbral discs.
  5. Classification of Bones
    2 main divisionss of the bones of the skeleton:

    Axial skeleton-Consists of the skull, vertbral column, and rib cage.

    Appendicular skeleton- Consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs, and the gridles that attach them to th axial skeleton
  6. Structural Classification of Bones
    5 types:

    Long

    Short

    Flat

    Irregular

    Seasamoid
  7. Long Bones
    Are longer than they are wide, have a definite shaft and two ends, and consists of all limb bones except the patellas, carpals and tarsals.
  8. Short Bones
    Are somewhat cubed-shaped and include the carpals and tarsals.
  9. Flat Bones
    Are thin, flattened, often curved bones that include most skull bones, the sternum, scapulae, and ribs.
  10. Irregular Bones
    Have complicated shapes that do not fit in any other class, such as the vertebrae and coxae.
  11. Seasamoid Bones
    " Extra" bones that develop in tendons or near joints, esp. in hands & feet. Include patellas, which are the only seasamoid bones consistently present in the skeleton.
  12. Function of Bones
    Support the body, & cradle the soft organs

    Protect vital organs

    Allow movement

    Store minerals such as calcium & phosphate

    House hematopoietic tissue (which forms blood cells) in specific marrow cavities.
  13. Gross Anatomy
    Bone markings are projections, depressions, and opening found on the surface of bones that fucntion as sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment, as joint surfaces, as openings for the passage of blood vessels and nerves.
  14. Compact Bone
    All bone has a dense outer layer consisting of a compact bone that appears smooth and solid.
  15. Spongy Bone
    Internal to compact bone is spongy bones, which consists of honeycomb, needle-like, or flat pieces, called trabeculae.

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