Made from cartilage, surrounded by a layer of dense irregular connective tissue card perichondrium
Most abundant skeletal cartilage, includes the articular, costal, respiratory, and nasal cartilages.
More flexible than hyaline, is located only in the external ear, the epiglottis of the larynx, and the eustachian (auditory) tube.
Located in areas that must withstand a great deal of pressure or strectch, such as the cartilages of the knee (menisci), and the interverbral discs.
Classification of Bones
2 main divisionss of the bones of the skeleton:
Axial skeleton-Consists of the skull, vertbral column, and rib cage.
Appendicular skeleton- Consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs, and the gridles that attach them to th axial skeleton
Structural Classification of Bones
Are longer than they are wide, have a definite shaft and two ends, and consists of all limb bones except the patellas, carpals and tarsals.
Are somewhat cubed-shaped and include the carpals and tarsals.
Are thin, flattened, often curved bones that include most skull bones, the sternum, scapulae, and ribs.
Have complicated shapes that do not fit in any other class, such as the vertebrae and coxae.
" Extra" bones that develop in tendons or near joints, esp. in hands & feet. Include patellas, which are the only seasamoid bones consistently present in the skeleton.
Function of Bones
Support the body, & cradle the soft organs
Protect vital organs
Store minerals such as calcium & phosphate
House hematopoietic tissue (which forms blood cells) in specific marrow cavities.
Bone markings are projections, depressions, and opening found on the surface of bones that fucntion as sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment, as joint surfaces, as openings for the passage of blood vessels and nerves.
All bone has a dense outer layer consisting of a compact bone that appears smooth and solid.
Internal to compact bone is spongy bones, which consists of honeycomb, needle-like, or flat pieces, called trabeculae.