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What are the four impluses that seem to push people together?
- 1. the impulse to receive stimulation
- 2. the impulse to express experiences
- 3. the impulse to assert oneself
- 4. the impulse to enhance enjoyment of certain activites
Explain the impulse to receive stimulation
- Excitment, Variety or Change of pace
- Many times we seek encounters with others simply to get excitement, variety, or a change of pace from an existence that may be temporarily stale.
- In the U.S. certain time periods seem more likely to trigger this- weekends, late Spring/early Summer when TV programmings change
Explain the impulse to express experiences.
- To tell others we trust -- those who will comfort & protect us (unpleasant) & share & delight in pleasant experiences. Also motivated by a desire to compare our experiences with others.
- Each of us have a reservoir of private experiences that at some point must overflow onto others. Usually we'll try to find specific others who will provide protection, comfort, and security for unpleasent experiences.
Explain the impulse to assert oneself
Our identity is largely a result of testing its potential components against other people. We know ourselves by knowing others, by what they think of us and what they say. Each of us has to feel we have some influence or control over out psychological environment. Our ability to assert some control and to fulfill out goals affects the way we interpret our socal world.
Explain the impulse to enhance enjoyment of certain activites.
Sometimes the desire to encounter others is associated with an event or an activity that is more fun with others than alone. When people want to share an event or an activity with someone, they may seek out new relationships.
What are three ways why perceptions differ?
- 1. Each person's perceptions of others are structured by his or her own cultural conditioning, education, and personal experiences.
- 2. Sometimes perceptions differ because of what we choose to observe and how we process what we've observed.
- 3. Sometimes we see only what we want to see or don't see what may be obvious to others because of our own needs, desires, or temorary emotional state.
Define Selective Perception
Sometimes we see only what we want to see or don't see what may be obvious to others because of our own needs, desires, or temorary emotional state.
What are some ways to typify an accurate perceiver of other people?
- Breadth of personal experience
- Ability to process complex stimuli and complex relationships
- Self-insight (seeing and accepting both positive and negative qualities in oneself)
- The ability to assume a detaches role (like a thrid-person observer)
What does an implicit personality theory mean?
It simply means that each of us has a mental catalogue of traits in our heads. As soon as we obtain information on one trait or a cluster or traits, we seem to assume automatically that other traits will also be characteristic of the person being observed.
What is stereotyping?
A way of simplifying our environment so that we can handle it.
What is stereotying inductively inferring?
It is inferring personally or group membership on the basis of specific features-height, skin color, vocal resonance, or baldness
What does stereotyin deductively mean?
We start more with an abstract category such as group membership or personality and infer specific features-"If he is Jewish, he must have a big nose."
What is attribution theory?
- Is behavior due to a person's personality or due to the situation or circumstances
- Sometimes we attribute certain characteristics or qualities to others on the basis of their overt actions. It is concerned with whether a specific behavior is due to a person's personality or whether it is die to the situation or circumstances impinging on the person.
Explain the spiral of reciprocal.
What I think that you think of me reverberates back to what I think of myself. What I think of myself, in turn, affects the way I act towards you. The way I act towards you, in tuen, influences how you feel toward yourself and the way you act towards me.
Explain the perceptual anesthesia.
Percetual distoration caused by the perceiver's inner drives is particularly evident in the early stages of infatuation.
What are three types of attraction?
- 1. Social Attraction ("he would fit into my circle of frineds")
- 2. Physical Attraction ("she is quite pretty")
- 3. Task Attraction (" my confidence in her ability to get the job done makes me what to work with her.")
T or F: Men and women tend to have more relational similarities than differecnes.
Explain coultural conditioning, education, and personal experiences.
adults teach children, previous experiences affect present & future experiences.
Explain choice and processing of observations
what we choose to observe & how we process it. We can't pay attention to all sensory cues; we attend to some & not to others.
Explain selective perception
Sometimes we see only what we want to see or don't see what others may see.
What can we do when information contradicts?
- Ignore it
- Reduce its importance
- Change the meaning of the information
- Reinterpret what we previously believed
- Infer new traits
Explain implicit personality theory
- All humans keep a mental catalogue of traits in our heads; if a person fits one traits, we assume the other traits that go along with the trait we know.
- Example: If someone is cold, what other traits go with that?
What does it mean to stereotype inductively?
Infer personality or group membership based on specific features
What does it mean to stereotype deductively?
Start with abstract category, like group membership or personality, & then infer specific
What is a self-serving bias?
- Tendency to enhance outcomes associated with our own behavior.
- Take credit for our successes
- Blame the situation or others for our failures (usuually someone we don't know or care about).
What is the Fundamental Attribution Error
- Tendency to overestimate the influence of dispositional factors & underestimate the role of situational factors in others' behavior.
- We do so because it’s easier than having to come up with a different explanation for each situation.
Define Perceptual Distortion
Sometimes we look for only those things that will fulfill our current needs.
Explain the chain of receprical events
The cycle of our initial perceptions, our behavior based on those perceptions, the impact of our behavior on the other's perceptions & behavior, & our subsequent perceptions based on the other's responses.
What is the Pollanna Principle?
Many are inclined to see the good, the pleasant, & the positive more than the less pleasant.
Explain Negative Effect.
- When forming initial impressions of others, we tend to weigh negative events & characteristics more heavily than positive ones.
- Initially explained that negative events may be most informative. However....instead, more current research revealed that we rely more on..
How usual event/characteristic is seems to be more important factor. Atypical/unusual occurrences stand out.
What are three reasons why we gravitate toward similar others
- 1) Assume similar characteristics will reflect a common view of the world.
- 2) If we share a lot in common, our interaction will require less hard work.
- 3) Similar others also seem to give us a better chance of being liked.
What is matching hypothesis?
tendency to select a person similar to yourself with respect to physical attractiveness. Maximize the attractiveness of choice while minimizing possibility of rejection.