Chapter 8

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jc2978
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68222
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Chapter 8
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2011-02-23 20:17:17
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Pathophysiology
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  1. The basic primary fuel for the cell is:
    Glucose.
  2. When a continuous supply of oxygen is present, _____ metabolism occurs.
    Aerobic
  3. If oxygen supply is interrupted for long periods of time, cells start to undergo _____ metabolism.
    Anaerobic
  4. Cells produce the most energy from _____ metabolism.
    Aerobic
  5. Cellular energy (ATP) is important to the cells because it is needed for the:
    Sodium/potassium pump to operate.
  6. If the sodium/potassium pump fails:
    Sodium rushes into the cell.
  7. If too much sodium accumulates inside the cell, the cell begins to:
    Expand.
  8. Ambient air contains mostly:
    Nitrogen.
  9. FiO2 stands for:
    Fraction of inspired oxygen.
  10. A patient breathing room air has an FiO2 of:
    0.21.
  11. When the diaphragm contracts smoothly, your patient:
    Inhales.
  12. Respiratory accessory muscles:
    Help increase the size of the chest.
  13. A normal-sized adult has a tidal volume of approximately ___mL.
    500
  14. Decreasing the tidal volume will _____ the amount of air available for gas exchange in the alveoli.
    Decrease
  15. The area in the respiratory passages that cannot participate in gas exchange is called:
    Dead space.
  16. In a healthy adult, respiratory rate is regulated first by the body detecting abnormal:
    Carbon dioxide levels.
  17. Oxygen is transported through the blood by binding to:
    Hemoglobin.
  18. Cardiac output is composed of:
    Stroke volume and heart rate.
  19. Stroke volume is defined as the amount of blood ejected from the:
    Left ventricle with each stroke.
  20. When an increase of blood in the left ventricle causes stretching of the ventricle, the heart:
    Contracts more forcefully.
  21. Preload is defined as the:
    Pressure generated in the left ventricle at the end of diastole.
  22. _____ are the first to respond to blood pressure changes.
    Baroreceptors
  23. is the process through which
    cells break down glucose to produce energy for the body.
    Cellular metabolism
  24. the process through which glucose is broken down into pyruvic
    acid molecules.
    Glycolysis
  25. is cellular respiration in the presence of oxygen.
    Aerobic respiration
  26. is cellular respiration in the absence of oxygen
    Anaerobic metabolism
  27. the delivery of oxygen, glucose, and other substances to the
    cells and the elimination of waste products from the cells.
    Perfusion
  28. The concentration of oxygen the patient is breathing
    • should be at least
    • 21 percent.
  29. 1. Some toxic gases displace the amount of oxygen in the air and
    suffocate the patient.
    2. Some gases disrupt the ability of the blood to carry adequate amounts
    of oxygen to the cells.
    3. Some toxic gases may interfere with the ability of the cells to use
    oxygen.
    Toxic gases
  30. one that is not obstructed.
    A patent airway
  31. Epiglottis
    The flap of cartilaginous tissue that covers the opening of the larynx
  32. The structure that contains the vocal cords
    Larynx
  33. Trachea
    Trachea extends downward and bifurcates at the carina.
  34. Boyle’s Law applied to ventilation
    • 1. An increase in pressure will decrease the volume of gas.
    • 2. A decrease in pressure will increase the volume of gas.
  35. is a measure of the ability of the chest wall and lungs to
    stretch, distend, and expand.
    Compliance
  36. relates to the ease of airflow down the conduit of airway structures leading to the alveoli.
    Airway resistance
  37. Any break in the pleura creates negative pressure, which draws air into
    the -------- ------.
    Pleural space
  38. the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one
    minute.
    Minute ventilation
  39. the volume of air breathed in with each individual breath.
    Tidal volume
  40. Frequency of ventilation
    the number of ventilations in one minute.
  41. A decrease in the minute ventilation
    • will reduce the amount of air
    • available for gas exchange in the alveoli and lead to cellular hypoxia.
  42. the amount of air moved in and out of the alveoli in one minute for gas exchange
    Alveolar ventilation
  43. consists of anatomical areas in the respiratory tract where air collects during inhalation.
    Dead air space
  44. monitor pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen levels in arterial blood.
    Chemoreceptors
  45. provide impulses to regulate respiration.
    Lung receptors
  46. Inadequate ventilation and cellular hypoxia can occur from:
    • A low tidal volume
    • A ventilatory rate that is too slow
    • A ventilatory rate that is too fast
  47. Irritant receptors
    found in the airways and are sensitive to irritating gases, aerosols, and particles. Irritant receptors will stimulate a cough, bron-choconstriction, and an increased ventilatory rate.
  48. Stretch receptors
    found in the smooth muscle of the airways and measure the size and volume of the lungs. These receptors stimulate a decrease in the rate and volume of ventilation when stretched by high tidal volumes to protect against lung overinflation.
  49. J-receptors
    • found in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli and are sensitive to increases in
    • pressure in the capillary. When activated, the J- receptors stimulate rapid, shallow ventilation.
  50. has inspiratory neurons that send im-pulses to the external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm, causing them to contract, which results in in-halation.
    Dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
  51. Ventral respiratory group (VRG)
    has both inspiratory and expiratory neurons and is basically inactive during regular quiet ventilation.
  52. provides stim-ulation to the DRG and VRGI to intensify the inhalation.
    Apneustic center
  53. sends inhibitory impulses to the apneustic center to turn off the inhalation before the lungs are too full.
    Pneumotaxic center
  54. relates the amount of ventilation the
    alveoli receive to the amount of perfusion through the capillaries
    surrounding the alveoli.
    ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio
  55. a lack of oxygen available to the cells.
    Cellular hypoxia
  56. is a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood
    Hypercarbia
  57. Hemoglobin
    • is a protein molecule that has four iron sites for oxygen to
    • bind to.
  58. Oxygen moves from
    alveoli into capillaries
  59. carbon dioxide moves
    from
    capillaries into alveoli.
  60. Composition of blood
    • 45 percent cells and proteins.
    • 55 percent plasma.
  61. contain hemoglobin, are responsible for
    carrying oxygen and delivering it to cells.
    Red blood cells
  62. protect the body against infection and eliminate dead and injured cells.
    White blood cells
  63. Platelets
    cell fragments that play a role in clotting.
  64. Most blood is housed,
    supplies the right side of the heart with an adequate volume of blood.
    venous system.
  65. pressure is the force inside the vessel or capillary bed
    generated by the contraction of the heart and blood pressure.
    A high hydrostatic pressure forces more fluid out of the vessel or capillary, thereby promoting edema.
    Hydrostatic pressure
  66. responsible for keeping fluid inside the
    vessels.
    Plasma oncotic pressure
  67. the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle in one
    minute.
    Cardiac output
  68. the number of times the heart contracts in one minute.
    heart rate
  69. the volume of blood ejected by the left ventricle with
    each contraction.
    Stroke volume
  70. Frank Starling’s law of the heart
    • describes that the stretch of the muscle
    • fiber at the end of diastole determines the force available to eject the
    • blood from the ventricle.
  71. is the resistance in the aorta that must be overcome by
    contraction of the left ventricle to eject blood.
    Afterload
  72. the flow of blood through the arterioles, capillaries, and
    venules.
    Microcirculation
  73. Blood pressure equals the
    cardiac output times the systemic vascular resistance.
  74. are stretch-sensitive receptors that detect changes in
    blood pressure and send impulses to the brain stem to make alterations
    in blood pressure.
    Baroreceptors
  75. monitor the content of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH of the blood, and cause the brainstem to trigger changes in the
    sympathetic nervous system.
    Chemoreceptors
  76. The concept that the volume of a gas inversely proportionate to the pressure
    Boyle's law
  77. The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle in 1 minute
    Cardiac output

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