When a continuous supply of oxygen is present, _____ metabolism occurs.
If oxygen supply is interrupted for long periods of time, cells start to undergo _____ metabolism.
Cells produce the most energy from _____ metabolism.
Cellular energy (ATP) is important to the cells because it is needed for the:
Sodium/potassium pump to operate.
If the sodium/potassium pump fails:
Sodium rushes into the cell.
If too much sodium accumulates inside the cell, the cell begins to:
Ambient air contains mostly:
FiO2 stands for:
Fraction of inspired oxygen.
A patient breathing room air has an FiO2 of:
When the diaphragm contracts smoothly, your patient:
Respiratory accessory muscles:
Help increase the size of the chest.
A normal-sized adult has a tidal volume of approximately ___mL.
Decreasing the tidal volume will _____ the amount of air available for gas exchange in the alveoli.
The area in the respiratory passages that cannot participate in gas exchange is called:
In a healthy adult, respiratory rate is regulated first by the body detecting abnormal:
Carbon dioxide levels.
Oxygen is transported through the blood by binding to:
Cardiac output is composed of:
Stroke volume and heart rate.
Stroke volume is defined as the amount of blood ejected from the:
Left ventricle with each stroke.
When an increase of blood in the left ventricle causes stretching of the ventricle, the heart:
Contracts more forcefully.
Preload is defined as the:
Pressure generated in the left ventricle at the end of diastole.
_____ are the first to respond to blood pressure changes.
is the process through which
cells break down glucose to produce energy for the body.
the process through which glucose is broken down into pyruvic
is cellular respiration in the presence of oxygen.
is cellular respiration in the absence of oxygen
the delivery of oxygen, glucose, and other substances to the
cells and the elimination of waste products from the cells.
The concentration of oxygen the patient is breathing
should be at least
1. Some toxic gases displace the amount of oxygen in the air and
suffocate the patient.
2. Some gases disrupt the ability of the blood to carry adequate amounts
of oxygen to the cells.
3. Some toxic gases may interfere with the ability of the cells to use
one that is not obstructed.
A patent airway
The flap of cartilaginous tissue that covers the opening of the larynx
The structure that contains the vocal cords
Trachea extends downward and bifurcates at the carina.
Boyle’s Law applied to ventilation
1. An increase in pressure will decrease the volume of gas.
2. A decrease in pressure will increase the volume of gas.
is a measure of the ability of the chest wall and lungs to
stretch, distend, and expand.
relates to the ease of airflow down the conduit of airway structures leading to the alveoli.
Any break in the pleura creates negative pressure, which draws air into
the -------- ------.
the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one
the volume of air breathed in with each individual breath.
Frequency of ventilation
the number of ventilations in one minute.
A decrease in the minute ventilation
will reduce the amount of air
available for gas exchange in the alveoli and lead to cellular hypoxia.
the amount of air moved in and out of the alveoli in one minute for gas exchange
consists of anatomical areas in the respiratory tract where air collects during inhalation.
Dead air space
monitor pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen levels in arterial blood.
provide impulses to regulate respiration.
Inadequate ventilation and cellular hypoxia can occur from:
A low tidal volume
A ventilatory rate that is too slow
A ventilatory rate that is too fast
found in the airways and are sensitive to irritating gases, aerosols, and particles. Irritant receptors will stimulate a cough, bron-choconstriction, and an increased ventilatory rate.
found in the smooth muscle of the airways and measure the size and volume of the lungs. These receptors stimulate a decrease in the rate and volume of ventilation when stretched by high tidal volumes to protect against lung overinflation.
found in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli and are sensitive to increases in
pressure in the capillary. When activated, the J- receptors stimulate rapid, shallow ventilation.
has inspiratory neurons that send im-pulses to the external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm, causing them to contract, which results in in-halation.
Dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
Ventral respiratory group (VRG)
has both inspiratory and expiratory neurons and is basically inactive during regular quiet ventilation.
provides stim-ulation to the DRG and VRGI to intensify the inhalation.
sends inhibitory impulses to the apneustic center to turn off the inhalation before the lungs are too full.
relates the amount of ventilation the
alveoli receive to the amount of perfusion through the capillaries
surrounding the alveoli.
ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio
a lack of oxygen available to the cells.
is a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood
is a protein molecule that has four iron sites for oxygen to
Oxygen moves from
alveoli into capillaries
carbon dioxide moves
capillaries into alveoli.
Composition of blood
45 percent cells and proteins.
55 percent plasma.
contain hemoglobin, are responsible for
carrying oxygen and delivering it to cells.
Red blood cells
protect the body against infection and eliminate dead and injured cells.
White blood cells
cell fragments that play a role in clotting.
Most blood is housed,
supplies the right side of the heart with an adequate volume of blood.
pressure is the force inside the vessel or capillary bed
generated by the contraction of the heart and blood pressure.
A high hydrostatic pressure forces more fluid out of the vessel or capillary, thereby promoting edema.
responsible for keeping fluid inside the
Plasma oncotic pressure
the amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle in one
the number of times the heart contracts in one minute.
the volume of blood ejected by the left ventricle with
Frank Starling’s law of the heart
describes that the stretch of the muscle
fiber at the end of diastole determines the force available to eject the
blood from the ventricle.
is the resistance in the aorta that must be overcome by
contraction of the left ventricle to eject blood.
the flow of blood through the arterioles, capillaries, and
Blood pressure equals the
cardiac output times the systemic vascular resistance.
are stretch-sensitive receptors that detect changes in
blood pressure and send impulses to the brain stem to make alterations
in blood pressure.
monitor the content of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH of the blood, and cause the brainstem to trigger changes in the
sympathetic nervous system.
The concept that the volume of a gas inversely proportionate to the pressure
The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle in 1 minute