path block 2

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path block 2
2011-02-22 21:03:34

neoplasia and blood
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  1. carcinoma
    epithelium tissue cancer
  2. sarcoma
    mesenchyme tissue cancer (malignant)
  3. how does dysplasia differ from neoplasia
    dysplasia is reversible on removal of stimulus

    (dysplasia has abnormal looking cells with weird nuclei and bigger cells on top)
  4. how is dyplasia recognized (4 things)


    change in organization

    increased mitosis
  5. benign tumor arising from fibroblast
  6. benign cartilaginous tumor
  7. benign fatty tumor and smooth muscle tumor
    lipoma and leiomyoma
  8. how name benign glandular epithelium tumors (ie of kidneys) and what r benign glandular epithelium tumors with cavities/cysts called
    adenoma=glandular epithelium benign tumor

    renal adenoma

  9. what is cyst lined by mucinous epithelium and by ciliated epithelium called
    mucinous cystademona and serous adenoma
  10. what is papilloma
    benign epithelial surface neoplasm that has finger-like/warty projections
  11. what is polyp
    club shaped benign epithelial neoplastic projection arising from glandular or tubular epithelium

    looks like strawberry on a stick
  12. name 5 malignant tumors with suffix 'oma'




  13. nomenclature of epithelial origin malignant tumors (3 steps)
    1. suffix = carcinoma

    2. origin of epithelium (squamous, glandulor or transitional)

    • 3. gross appearance:
    • -papillary (fingerlike projections)
    • -medullary (soft n necrotic tumor)
    • -scirrhous (hard textured with gritty cut surface due to high collagen)
    • -mucinous (tumor producing mucus)
  14. how to identify squamous cell carcinoma
    should have at least one of following:

    keratin/keratin pearls (keratin stains orange-red)

    desmosomes (intracellular bridges/gaps)

    tonofilaments (keratin intermediate filaments (tubule like bundle))
  15. how to identify adenocarcinomas (2)
    glands with lumen and/or mucin (stains with muciarmine)
  16. how to identify transitional cell carcinomas
    renal pevis, ureter and bladder (from pelvis to bladder)
  17. nomenclature of malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin
    prefix denoting tissue of origin then sarcoma

    • osteosarcoma (bone)
    • liposarcoma (adipose tissue)
    • leiomyosarcoma (smooth muscle)
    • rhabdomyosarcoma (striated muscle (desmin +)-vagina/penis of little kids)
    • chondrosarcoma (cartillage)
  18. how classify tumor
    1. whether tissue composed of ONE parenchymal cell type (mesenchymal or epithelial)

    2. composed of more than one parenchymal cell type but derived from one SINGLE germ layer

    3. composed of more than one parenchymal cell type but derived from MULTIPLE germ layers
  19. tumors of neural crest origin features (3)
    arise from neural crest and neural ectoderm derivatives

    contain desnse neurosecretory granules on EM

    S100 antigen positive
  20. mixed tumor example and what made of
    made of more than 1 parenchymal cell type but one germ layer

    • ex: salivary glands
    • -->benign = pleomorphic adenoma
    • -->malignant= malignant mixed tumor of salivary gland
  21. what is teratoma comped of, tissue of origin and benign/malignant called
    composed of more than 1 parencyhmal cell type and multiple germ layers

    tissue of origin is totipotent cells (gonads)

    • benign=mature cystic teratoma (aka dermoid cyst)
    • malignant=immature teratoma (aka teratocarcinoma)
  22. what is hamartoma
    non-neoplastic tumor-like lesion composed of mass of disorganized but mature tissue in a particulat site (where normally found)

    -it is present since birth and frows with individual and is result from aberrant differentiation

    -pulomary hamartoma= coin lesion
  23. what is choristoma
    non-neoplastic normal tissue in a FOREIGN location

    i.e. pancreatic tissue in stomach wall
  24. 4 criteria to differentiate between benign and malignant
    • 1. differentiation and anaplasia
    • Differentiation=extent that tumor cells resemble normal cells (benign=close resemblance)

    • Anaplasia=lack of differentiation
    • -nuclear/cellular pleomorphism
    • -hyperchromatic (dark staining) and larger nucleus
    • -abundant and atypical mitosis*
    • -loss of tissue architecture and function*

    2. Rate of growth: benign is slower and malignant is faster, more agressive with abnormal mitotic figures

    3. Local invasion: benign don't invade/infiltrate (they tend to form capsule) while malignant are invasive/infiltrate

    4. Metastasis: all malignant tumors (except basal cell carcinoma n brain tumors-gliomas) have capacity to metastasize while benign do not spread
  25. 3 routes of metastasis
    • 1. Lymphatic Spread=most common way for initial spread (less for sarcoma)
    • -->exceptions=follicular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma as they are close to veins
    • -->regional LN r first line of defense against spread and act as barriers then empty into blood vessels
    • -->involved LN are enlarged, nontender and hard in consistency when infiltrated

    • 2. Hematogenous Spread=usual method of sarcoma dissemination and involve veins
    • -->cells entering portal vein metastasize to liver
    • -->cells entering IVC/SVC metastasize to lungs

    • 3. Seeding of Body Cavities=malignant cells implant and invade tissue in body cavity
    • -->peritoeal cavity (MC site: ovarian, GI, rectal and pancreatic cancers)
    • -->pleural cavity (primary/metastatic lung cancers)
    • -->subarchnoid space (glioblastoma multiforme)