Anthropology- Exam 1
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What are the 4 subfields of Anthropology? (quadratic approach)
- 1) Cultural
- 2) Linguistic
- 3) Biological-- aka- forensic/physical/evolutionary
- 4) Archaeology
One work analyzing a specific group:
Comparing & contrasting different groups/ethnographic studies (laws, rules, & patterns form) :
6 field methods for Cultural Anthropology:
- Ethnographic fieldwork
- Participant observation
- In-depth interviewing
- Long term studies
- Emic approach-- becoming involvedEtic approach-- observation
Which is the oldest speciality of the 4 four-fields?
What is the term for 'used in a legal setting..' ?
Study of primates/behavior:
The study of relationships between material cultures and behavior:
Contemporary Anthropologists do not agree on what..?
- A definition of culture.
- -Some are more materialist, others are more idealist.
Characteristics all cultures share:
- Made up of a learned behavior
- Learned through process of enculturization
- Learning it is a continuous process
- All involved use of language
May result from internal dynamics or by outside forces:
What is culture? (5 "characteristics")
The part of the "anthropological perspective" that involves consideration of every part of a culture in relation to every other part and to the whole:
What are the 3 components of the "Anthropological Perspective" ?
- 1) Comparative or cross-cultural study
- 2) Holism
- 3) Cultural relativism
The reaction to the fact of cultural diversity in which one attempts to understand and judge the behavior of another culture in terms of its standards of good, normal, moral, legal, etc rather than one's own.
A group/subset within a society that more or less intentionally adopts behaviors, beliefs, or practices that are opposed to the mainstream of society.
The process by which a person learns or acquires his or her culture, usually as a child. (aka: Socialization)
The anthropological method of traveling to the society being studied and living there for a prolonged period of time to collect data first hand.
Kinship or "blood" and "marriage" information about a society.
The species name for Modern Human:
The species or subspecies of Homo that 1st appeared around 130,000 years ago and is associated with the cold climate of Europe.
Became extinct in the last 35,000-40,000 years and are generally not regarded as direct Human ancestors (<-- somewhat controversal)
The anthropological field method in which we travel to the society we want to study and spend long periods of time there... not only watching, but joining in as well.
4 Components of Linton's Model of Distribution:
- 1) Universals
- 2) Alternatives
- 3) Specialities
- 4) Individual Peculiarities
What does our life (culture) revolve around?
4 "choices" within a language:
- 1) Dialects
- 2) Slang
- 3) Song
- 4) Literacy style
A variation of a given language spoken in a particular place or by a particular group of people.
OFFICIAL definition of Dialect:
A regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary.
"Levels" of language:
Upper vs Lower
Official vs Personal
What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis:
"...Language is not just a list of words or things, not just a vocabulary...
It is a code for concepts, ideas, relationships...values and meanings..."
A social construct, based on the physical/biological characteristics of individuals and the meanings, behaviors, and values that the society associates with the categories:
Men are (blank) , women are (blank) :
Men are made
, women are born
- * men- have to prove themselves
- women- physical change to make
What is Anthropology?
The study of the diversity of human bodies and behavior in the past and the present.
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