Chemistry ch 14
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ionic crystals are held together by
the attraction of positive ions and negative ions
what forces hold the atoms in molecules together?
- intramolecular forces
- (not electrically charged ions)
- Different EN's, so there isn't equal sharing of shared pairs
- The highest EN attracts the shared pair more strongly and causes that end to have a partial negative charge.
- The other end is partial pos, causiong a polar molecule
In most cases, polar covalent bonds produce what kind of molecules?
A polar molecule is often called a
What does a high dipole moment mean?
the intramolecular forces in a molecule are strong, resulting in a higher MP and BP
Can polar covalent bonds be present in a nonpolar molecule? Why?
intermolecular forces (between 2 molecules) and act to hold 2 or more molecules together
van der Waals forces
the attraction of an electron from 1 atom and the proton froma second atom
occur when 2 molecules that normally are dipoles attract
dipole-induced dipole forces
occur when a dipole attracts a nonpolar molecule by inducing this molecule to form a temporary dipole
dispersion or London forces
occur when 2 nonpolar molecu;es attract because of the random movement of their electrons
molecules held by weak forces tend to be
ligands are what kind of molecules/have what charges?
- polar molecules- no charge
- or negative ions
when ligands cluster around the central positive ion
number of points of attachment
Most common coordination number
- square planar
- Ni, Pd, Pt, CO
- always linear
- formed with positive ions
- Ag, Au, Hg
- ligand attaches to the central positive atom at 2 spots
molecular ligands are always
- have at least one unshared pair
which names change to latin?
- form when complex ions are involved in the formation of a compound.
- 3 ways
1st way to form coordination compound
the charge of the positive ion is equal to the total charges of the ligands
2nd way to form a coordination compound
neither the atom nor the ligands have a charge
3rd and most common way to form a coordination compound
complex ions form a compound with 1 or more monoatomic, polyatomic, or complex ion of the opposite charge
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