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What is the function of the respiratory system?
Taking oxygen from the air and supplying it to the blood
A common cause of airway obstruction in the patient with an altered mental status is:
Air entering the body through the mouth and nostrils travels into the:
The only completely circular cartilaginous ring of the upper airway is the:
When your patient inhales, the diaphragm:
And the intercostal muscles contract.
Inadequate oxygen being delivered to the cells is called:
The oxygen/carbon dioxide exchange takes place in the:
The narrowest part(s) of an infant's upper airway is (are) the:
A child's metabolic rate and limited oxygen reserves will cause him or her to become _______________ much quicker than an adult during periods of apnea.
A harsh, high-pitched sound heard during inspiration, characteristic of an upper airway obstruction due to swelling, is called:
Steps in performing a head-tilt/chin-lift maneuver for opening the airway of a nontrauma patient include:
Tilting the head backward as far as possible.
When opening the airway of a patient with a suspected spinal injury:
Use the jaw-thrust maneuver.
If a gurgling sound is heard when you are assessing the airway, or during artificial ventilation, you should:
Immediately apply suction to remove the liquid from the airway.
When using a soft catheter to suction the mouth and oropharynx, you should:
Measure the catheter from the corner of the mouth to the tip of the ear.
The use of a rigid suction catheter, or "tonsil tip" catheter, is:
More effective for particulate matter than a soft catheter.
The proper technique of suctioning includes:
Placing the tip of the rigid catheter so that the convex side is against the roof of the mouth.
When suctioning a child, you should suction for no more than:
5 seconds at a time.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the oropharyngeal airway?
Even with the airway inserted, it is necessary to maintain the position of the head.
The nasopharyngeal airway is a curved hollow tube of soft plastic or rubber that:
Should be lubricated with a water-soluble lubricant before insertion.
Insertion of a nasopharyngeal airway includes:
Measuring the airway from the tip of the nose to the tip of the earlobe.
The patient whose breathing is adequate will exhibit which of the following characteristics?
Breath sounds that are equal and full bilaterally
When the amount of air breathed in and out by a patient is not sufficient to support adequate cellular oxygenation, the patient is said to be experiencing:
If your patient is experiencing tachypnea, this means the patient has:
Signs of inadequate breathing in an adult patient include:
Use of accessory muscles to breathe.
Indications that an adult patient is being adequately ventilated include:
Improvement in the patient's color.
The method of artificial ventilation preferred for use by EMTs is:
The principle behind mouth-to-mouth ventilation is:
Our exhaled breath is 16 percent oxygen.
Advantages to mouth-to-mask ventilation include:
Elimination of direct contact with the patient's nose, mouth, and secretions.
Features of the bag-valve mask should include:
Transparent masks in a variety of sizes.
When using a bag-valve mask to ventilate a non-breathing patient:
Use your ring and little finger to bring the patient's jaw up to the mask.
You decide to ventilate your patient with an FROPVD. Which of the following is true?
The FROPVD must have a pressure relief valve that opens at approximately 60 cm of water pressure.
A number of different oxygen cylinders are available. Which of the following is true?
No matter what size it is, an oxygen tank is full at a pressure of 2,000 psi.
Never use adhesive tape on a pressurized oxygen tank, as it may cause:
Guidelines for the administration of oxygen include:
Hand-tightening the T-screw on the regulator.
The preferred method of delivering oxygen in the prehospital setting is with a nonrebreather mask. When using this device, remember:
The nonrebreather mask can deliver up to 90 percent oxygen concentration.
An alternative method of oxygen administration is the nasal cannula. Facts about the nasal cannula include:
The maximum liter flow for the nasal cannula is 6 lpm.
Which of the following is true regarding a simple face mask for oxygen delivery?
The oxygen flow rate is usually set at 10 lpm.
Which of the following conditions would NOT adversely affect the accuracy of a pulse oximeter reading?
You may be called upon to ventilate a patient with a stoma or tracheostomy tube. Special considerations include:
Suctioning the stoma before ventilating, if necessary.
Assessment of a patient's breathing should include:
- Observing the chest for adequate expansion.
- Observing the patient's general appearance.
- Deciding if the breathing pattern is regular or irregular
The mechanical process of moving air in and out of the lungs
The gas exchange process that occurs between the alveoli and the surrounding pulmonary capillaries
The process through which glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP, carbon dioxide, and water
Cellular respiration and metabolism—
The upper airway
- Extends from the nose and mouth to the cricoid cartilage
- 1. Nose and mouth
- 2. Pharynx
- 3. Epiglottis
- 4. Larynx
The lower airway
- Extends from the cricoid cartilage to the alveoli of the lungs
- 1. Trachea
- 2. Bronchi and bronchioles
- 3. Lungs
- 4. Diaphragm
the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
- 1. The diaphragm and the intercostals muscles contract.
- 2. The diaphragm moves slightly downward.
- 3. The size of the chest cavity increases.
- 4. Negative pressure is created inside the chest cavity.
- 5. Air is drawn in by way of the nose, mouth, trachea, and bronchi into the lungs.
- 1. The diaphragm and the intercostals muscles relax.
- 2. The diaphragm moves slightly upward to its resting position.
- 3. The size of the chest cavity is reduced.
- 4. The pressure in the chest cavity becomes positive.
- 5. Air is forced out of the lungs.
When assessing the airway of a patient with a severely altered mental status
- 1. Open the mouth manually.
- 2. Perform a manual airway maneuver.
- 3. Inspect the inside of the mouth.
- 4. Listen for any abnormal sounds.
Sounds that indicate airway obstruction
- 1. Snoring—Upper airway is partially obstructed by the tongue or relaxed tissues in the pharynx.
- 2. Crowning—Muscles around the larynx spasm and narrow the opening into the trachea.
- 3. Gurgling—Blood, vomitus, secretions, or other liquids are present in the airway.
- 4. Stridor—Swelling in the larynx causes significant upper airway obstruction.
Head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver
- Should be used when opening the airway in a patient who has no suspected spine injury
- Must be supplemented with a mechanical airway device if the airway cannot be adequately maintained
Patient’s head and neck must be brought into a neutral, in-line position if a spine injury is suspected. This maneuver is used to open the airway without tilting back the head and neck. The jaw is displaced by the EMT’s fingers. Must be supplemented with a mechanical airway device if the airway cannot be adequately maintained
Positive pressure ventilation (PPV)
is a technique in which air is being forced into the patient’s lungs.
Also known as Sellick maneuver
- Can be used to reduce complications associated with positive pressure ventilation
- Used only in unresponsive patients Requires an EMT to apply pressure to the cricoid cartilage
is a method of positive pressure ventilation that will deliver 100 percent oxygen to the patient.
Flow-restricted, oxygen-powered ventilation device (FROPVD)
The automatic transport ventilator (ATV)
is a device use for positive pressure ventilation.
Respirations are controlled by
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have
chronically elevated carbon dioxide levels in arterial blood.
Chemoreceptors in COPD patients
become insensitive to changes in carbon dioxide and instead rely on oxygen levels to regulate breathing.
Rate, rhythm, quality, and___
depth of respirations should be assessed.
Respiratory distress occurs when
a patient is working harder to breathe and needs supplemental oxygen.
a bluish color of the skin and mucous membranes that indicates poor oxygenation of tissue