Skeletal System

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Skeletal System
2011-02-23 00:48:32

skeletal for anatomy
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  1. The lateral edge of the spenoid bone is located _____________ to the temporal bone.
  2. The frontal bone is located _______ to the parietal bone.
  3. The ethmoid bone is located on the _______ of the eye socket.
  4. The zygomatic bone is a
    facial bone
  5. The lower jaw is called the
  6. The upper jaw is called the
  7. The cheek bones are called
    zygomatic bones
  8. The lacrimal bone is located on the medial side of hte eye socket and is located ________ to the ethmoid bone.
  9. What facial bone makes up part of the nasal septum
  10. When you put your hand on the back of your skull, your hand will be on the _________ bone.
  11. When sound waves enter the ear canal, the waves will cause which ossicle to vibrate first?
  12. The structure on the mandible that makes up part of hte hinge joint of hte jaw is called the
    mandibular condyle
  13. Which ossicle is connected directly to the tympanic membrane?
  14. How many pairs of ribs do men have compared to women?
    Both have 12 pairs
  15. The ribs attach to which set of vertebrate
  16. What is the name of the vertebra that is attached to the skull
  17. The rib cage is part of the ________ skeleton.
  18. Cervical vertebrae can be identified from other vertebrae by the presence of extra holes called
    transverse foramen
  19. Ribs that do not have a connection to the sternum are called
    false ribs
  20. The spinal cord passes through a large hole in hte vertebrae called the
    vertebral foramen
  21. How many cervical vertebraes are there
  22. Blood vessels and verves pass through ________ of hte skull to get to their destination
  23. The skull bones, ribs, and bones of the pelvis are classified as what type of bone
    flat bones
  24. Epiphyses at the ends and a diaphysis in the middle describes
    long bones
  25. The projections of irregular bones such as on the vertebrae provide sites for the attachment of muscle tendons and ______.
  26. All the bones of the head, vertebral column, and the ribcage are considered
    axial skeleton
  27. The major protein in the fibers of hte bone matrix is
  28. Bone serves to support the body, protect the organs, store calcium, and serve as sites of formation for
    blood cells
  29. Red bone marrow is particularly acitve at the center of bones such as the vertebrae and bones of the
  30. The two ends of a long bone are known as
  31. The thin layer of hyaline cartilage at the outer surface of hte end of a long bone is
    articular cartilage
  32. Wherever it lacks a cartilage cover, the long bone is covered with a connective tissue membrane known as the
  33. The interior portion of the epiphysis of a long bone consists of
    spongy bone
  34. The marrow cavity in long bones is filled with
    yellow bone marrow
  35. Spongy bone contains networks of bony plates and rods known as
  36. The histological and physiological unit of compact bone is the
  37. The microscopic spaces enclosing hte osteocytes of bone are the
  38. The central canals of osteons are connected by a system of channels called
    perforating canals
  39. The cells making hte protein and hydroxyapatite for bone growth are the
  40. Bone formation takes place by a process called
  41. Before puberty, the long bone lengthens at a zone of cartilage beyond the ossification center called the
    epiphyseal plate
  42. Bone is remodeled and dissolved by substances secreted by bone resorbing cells referred to as
  43. The destruction and remodeling of bone provides the body with ions such as phosphate ions and
    calcium ions
  44. The excessive breakdown of bone may exceed its deposit in the condition called
  45. Semimovable joints are called
  46. An immovable joint consisting of two adjacent edges of bone separated by a small amount of fibrous tissue is a
    synovial joint
  47. A diarthrosis is a freely movable joint consisting of two bones separated by a cavity called the
    synovial fluid
  48. Closed, fluid filled sacs found near diarthrotic joints are called
  49. A diarthrotic joint that permits rotation is a
    pivot joint
  50. Mocement at a joint in which the angle between two bones is reduced is known as
  51. When a body part is moved away from the midline of hte body, the movement is referred to as
  52. When a body part moves toward the midline, the movement is
  53. Twisting the head from side to side, such as when gesturing "no", is the joint movement
  54. Turning the hand so that the palm is forward demonstrates the movement
  55. Flat bones help protect the delicate tissues of the
    • thorax
    • brain
  56. Fx of the skeleton system
    • storing calcium and phosphate
    • serving as sites for blood cell formation
    • supporting the body
  57. Irregular bones of the body include
  58. Bones of the axial skeleton
    • ribs
    • sternum
    • vertebrae
    • skull
  59. Blood cell formation occurs in
    red bone marrow
  60. The diaphysis and epiphysis are portions of a
    long bone
  61. The periosteum is a connective tissue membrane that
    cover portions of bones
  62. Perforating canals connect the central canals with one another in the
    compact bone
  63. The principal bone forming cells of the body are
  64. Endochondral ossification occurs at the
    epiphyseal plate
  65. Bone ceases to lengthen when the
    end of puberty is reached
  66. Cells that resorb bone and provide calcium for the body are known as
  67. Where the two pubic bones come together, the joint that forms is
  68. The function of synovial fluid is to
    lubricate a diarthrotic joint
  69. An example of a hinged joint is found at the
  70. Where the concave surface of one bone fits the convex surface of another bone, hte joint is known as a
    saddle joint
  71. When a joint moves and reduces the angle between two bones at the joint, the movement is called a
  72. Moving a body part away from the body's midline and back to the midline repesent two movements known as
    • abduction
    • adduction
  73. Pronation is a joint movement in which the forearm is rotated so the palm is facing
  74. The bones of the upper and lower appendages comprise the
    appendicular skeleton
  75. Movement of bones is provided by the body's
    skeletal muscles
  76. The cranial bones are fused together at immovable joints known as
  77. The forehead and anterior roof of hte cranium is formed by the
    fontal bone
  78. The posterior cranial floor is formed by the
    occipital bone
  79. The occipital bone contains a large hole for passage of hte spinal cord known as the
    foramen magnum
  80. The bones that form the side walls of the cranium are called the
    temporal bones
  81. The projection of hte temporal bone helping form the cheekbone is the
    zygomatic process
  82. The cranial bone that has the shape of a butterfly and forms the anterior internal floor of the cranium is the
    spenoid bone
  83. Membranous areas between the skull bones present in the newborn are known as
  84. The nasal cavity is divided into left and right chambers by a vertical partition called the
    vomer bone
  85. Each zygomatic bone has a projection forming the anterior cheekbone and is known as the
    temporal process
  86. The smallest facial bones are the
    lacrimal bones
  87. The upper jaw is formed by two bones called
  88. The lower jaw bone is shaped as a horseshoe and is called the
  89. The vertebral column is composed of 26 bones known as
  90. The five sacral vertebrae fuse to one another to form the
  91. The vertebrae of the neck are know as
    cervical vertebrae
  92. The unfused vertebrae of hte vertebral column are separated from one another by
    intervertebral disks
  93. An abnormal sideways curve of the spinal column is known as
  94. The weight-bearing cylinder of the vertebral bone that is found between the disks is the
  95. The spinal cord extends through the vertebral column by passing through openings in the vertebrae known as
    vertebral foramena
  96. The first vertebrae of the vertebral column is called the
  97. The three recognizable parts of the sternum are the manubrium, the body, and the
    ziphoid process
  98. The true ribs are attached directly to the sternum by the
    hyaline cartilage
  99. The last two pairs of ribs do not attach to the sternum and are known as
    floating ribs
  100. The arms are connected to the rib cage by connecting bones organized as the
    pectoral girdle
  101. The acromion and coracoid processes are both parts of a bone called the
  102. The anterior rod shaped bone connecting the arm bones to the axial skeleton is the
  103. The area in the center of the humerus where the deltoid muscle attaches is called the
    deltoid tuberosity
  104. The phalanges of the hand are the bones found in the
  105. The three bones of the pelvis are the ilium, ischium, and the
  106. The largest and strongest bone of hte human body is the
  107. The kneecap bone is called the
  108. The thin leg bone found on the medial side of the lower leg is the
  109. The toe bones are known as
  110. The appendicular skeleton is composed of bones of the
    upper and lower appendages
  111. The cranium is composed of a series of bones fused together at
  112. Both the foramen magnum and the obturator foramen are
    large holes in bones
  113. The cheekbone is formed by processes of the
    zygomatic and temporal bones
  114. A saddle shaped depression in the sphenoid bone holding the pituitary gland is the
    sella turcica
  115. Both the maxillae and the palatine bones help to for the
    hard palate
  116. Scoliosis and kyphosis are conditions that result from
    improper curvature of the spine
  117. The atlas and the axis are the names of
    the first two vertebrae
  118. The manubrium is the
    upper bone of the sternum
  119. The clavicle is a rod-shaped bone of hte
    pectoral girdle
  120. The deltoid muscle attaches to the humerus at the
    deltoid tuberosity
  121. The area of the pelvis on which we sit is formed by
    two ischia
  122. What are the major fx of hte skeletal system
    • support the body
    • protection of soft organs
    • movement due to attached skeletal muscle
    • storage of minerals and fats
    • blood cell formation
  123. Compact (lamellar) bone is
    • homogeneous
    • dense
  124. Spongy bone consists of
    • small needle-like pieces of bone
    • light with many open spaces
  125. What are the 4 main classifications of bone
    • long bone
    • short bone
    • flat bone
    • irregular bone
  126. Long bones are
    • longer than it is wide
    • shaft with two enlarged ends
    • contains mostly compact bone
    • found mostly in appendicular skeleton
  127. Short bones are
    • cube shaped
    • mostly spongy bone
    • carpals, tarsals
  128. Flat bones are
    • thin and flattened
    • usually curved
    • thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone
  129. Irregular bones are
    • irregular in shape
    • do not fit into other bone classes
    • vertebrae, pelvis
  130. Major anatomical areas of a long bone
    • diaphysis
    • epiphysis
    • epiphyseal line (adults)
    • epiphysis plate (kids)
  131. Describe the diaphysis of a long bone
    • shaft
    • composed of compact bone
  132. Describe the epiphysis of a long bone
    • the ends of the bone
    • composed of spongy bone
  133. What is the epiphyseal line
    thin line of bony tissue that crosses the epiphysis
  134. What is the epiphysis plate
    • It is in kids and is made of hyaline cartilage
    • It causes lengthwise growth of long bones
  135. Yellow marrow
    • found in the medullary cavity
    • fat tissues in Adults
  136. Red marrow
    • found in infants
    • blood cells are formed
  137. Lacunae
    cavities containing osteocytes
  138. lamellae
    matrix rings around the central canal
  139. Central (haversian) canal
    opening for blood vessels and nerves
  140. perforating (Volkman's) canal
    canal perpendicular to the central canal
  141. Canaliculi
    radiates from the central canal to lacunae
  142. Osteocytes are
    mature bone cells
  143. Osteoblasts are
    immature, bone forming cells
  144. Osteoclasts are
    • Bone destroying cells
    • They break down bone matrix and releases calcium ions into the blood
  145. The periosteum around the bone is
    • the outside covering of hte diaphysis
    • fibrous connective tissue membrane
  146. What do the Sharpey's fiber do
    secure the periosteum to underlying bone
  147. The articular cartilage
    • cover the external surfaces of the epiphysis
    • composed of hyaline cartilage
    • decereases friction at joint surfaces
  148. The medullary cavity
    • cavity of the shaft
    • contains yellow marrow in adults
    • contains red marrow in infants
  149. The Axial skeleton consists of
    • skull
    • spine
    • ribs
    • sternum
    • hyoid
    • ear ossicles
  150. The cranial bones are
    • frontal
    • parietal (2)
    • temporal (2)
    • occipital
    • spenoid
    • ethmoid
  151. The facial bones are
    • maxilla (2)
    • mandible
    • palatine (2) make the hard palate
    • lacrimal (2)
    • zygomatic (2)
    • nasal (2)
    • vomer
    • inferior nasal conchae (2)
  152. The spine consists of
    • cervical vertebrae
    • thoracic vertebrae
    • lumbar vertebrae
    • sacrum
    • coccyx
  153. The ribs have
    • 7 pair of true ribs
    • 5 pair of false ribs
  154. The sternum consists of three parts:
    • manubrium
    • body
    • xiphoid
  155. Describe the hyoid bone
    • does not articulate with any other bone
    • suspended by ligaments that attach to the temporal bone
    • attachment site for the tongue and muscles that allow for speech and swallowing
  156. The ear ossicles consist of
    • malleus
    • incus
    • stapes
  157. The appendicular skeleton consists of
    • pectoral girdle
    • arm
    • pelvic girdle
    • leg
  158. The pectoral girdle consists of
    • scapula (2)
    • clavicle (2)
  159. The arm consists of
    • humerus
    • radius
    • ulna
    • carpals (8)
    • metacarpals (5)
    • phalanges (14)1
  160. The pelvic girdle is know as the Os coxa which consist of
    • ilium
    • ischium
    • pubis
  161. The legs consists of
    • femur
    • patella
    • fibula
    • tibia
    • tarsals (7)
    • metatarsals (5)
    • phaanges (14)
  162. Ossification is
    • bone formation
    • when bone is modeled around hyaline cartilage
  163. List the three steps in ossification
    • osteoblasts cover the hyaline cartilage model
    • cartilage is digested away leaving a central (medullary) cavity
    • osteoblast become trapped in new matrix and mature to become osteocytes
  164. Bone is constantly changing in response to
    • blood calcium levels
    • gravity's pull on muscle and bone
  165. synarthroses joints are
  166. amphiarthroses joints are
    slightly movable
  167. synovial joints are
    freely moveable joints
  168. All synovial joints must have
    • articular cartilage
    • joint capsule
    • joint cavity containing synovial fluid
    • ligaments
  169. Not all synovial joints will have
    • fat pads
    • menisci
  170. Types of synovial joints
    • ball and socket
    • condyloid
    • hinge
    • saddle
    • pivot
    • plane
  171. Fractures are classified as
    • simple-no skin penetration
    • compound-skin penetration
  172. Types of fractures
    • comminuted
    • compression
    • depressed
    • impacted
    • spiral
    • greenstick
  173. A comminuted facture is
    • bone breaks into many fragment
    • at least 3 or more bone pieces
  174. A compression fracture is
    bone is crushed
  175. A depressed fracture is when
    broken bone portion is pressed inward
  176. An impacted or buckle fracture is when
    the broken bone ends are forced into each other
  177. A spiral fracture is when it is when
    ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone
  178. A greenstick fracture is when the
    bone breaks incompletely
  179. Bursitis is due to the inflammation of the
    bursae or synovial membrane
  180. Osteoarthritis is
    chronic degenerative condition that typically affects the aged
  181. Rheumatoid arthritis is
    • chronic inflammatory disorder
    • onset is usually between 40 and 50 yrs
    • affects more women than men
    • autoimmune diesease