Unit1SOC

Card Set Information

Author:
hydeab
ID:
68312
Filename:
Unit1SOC
Updated:
2011-02-22 23:44:17
Tags:
Sociology
Folders:

Description:
unit 1 test sociology
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user hydeab on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. subjective nature of social problems
    what is and what is not a social problem is a matter of definition. Thus, social problems vary by time and place.
  2. Objective reality of social problems
    some societal conditions harm certain segments of the population and therefore are social problems.
  3. Self-actualization
    • the assumed need (by Maslow) of individuals for
    • creative and constructive involvement in productive, significant activity.
  4. Institutionalized deviance
    when a society is organized in such a way as to disadvantage some of its members.
  5. social problems
    societally induced conditions that harm any segment of the population, and acts and conditions that violate the norms and values found in society.
  6. Sociological imagination
    • C. Wright Mill’s term emphasizing that individual troubles are inextricably linked to social forces.
    • o C.Wright Mill’s term emphasizing that individual troubles are inextricably linked to social forces.
    • § What is the structure of the society?
    • § What is the history of the people?
    • § What is the society’s place in history?
  7. Person-blame
    the assumption that social problems result from the pathologies of individuals.
  8. System-blame
    the assumption that social problems result from social conditions
  9. Cultural deprivation
    the assumption by the members of a group that the culture of some other group is not only inferior but also deficient. This term is usually applied by members of the majority to the culture of a minority group.
  10. Recidivism
    re-involvement in crime
  11. social darwinism
    • the belief that the place of people in the stratification
    • system is a function of their ability and effort.
  12. Deviant behavior
    a set of ideas that explain a range of human behavior and a variety of social and societal events.
  13. Sample
    a representative part of a population.
  14. Variable
    an attitude, behavior, or condition that can vary in magnitude and significance from case to case.
  15. Longitudinal surveys
    the collection of information about the same persons over many years.
  16. Control group
    the subject not exposed to the independent variable.
  17. Experimental group
    the subjects exposed to the independent variable
  18. Dependent variable
    the variable that is influenced by the effect of another variable.
  19. Independent variable
    a variable that affects another variable.
  20. Shared monopoly
    when four or fewer companies control 50% or more of an industry.
  21. Interlocking directorate
    the linkage between corporations that results when an individual serves on the board of directors of 2 companies (a direct interlock) or when 2 companies each have a director on the board of a third company (an indirect interlock).
  22. Oligarchy
    a political system that is ruled by a few.
  23. Plutocracy
    a government by or in the interest of the rich.
  24. Democracy
    a political system that is of, by, and for the people.
  25. Power elite
    people who occupy the power roles in society. They either are wealthy or represent the wealthy.
  26. Systemic imperatives
    • the economic and social constraints on political
    • decision makers that promote the status quo.
  27. Power
    the ability to get what one wants from someone else
  28. Differential fertility
    differences in the average number of children born to a woman by social category.
  29. Fertility rate
    the average number of children born to each woman.
  30. Modern demographic transition
    • a 3-stage pattern of population change occurring
    • as societies industrialize and urbanize, resulting ultimately in a low and stable population growth rate
  31. Absolute poverty
    a condition of life so degraded by disease, illiteracy, malnutrition, and squalor as to deny its victims the basic necessities. Statistically, those making less than $1 a day are in the category.
  32. Life chances
    the chances throughout one;s life cycle to live and experience the good things in life.
  33. Pandemic
    a worldwide epidemic.
  34. New slavery
    the new slavery differs from traditional slavery in that it is, for the most par, not a lifelong condition and sometimes individuals and families become slaves by choice-a choice forced by extreme poverty.
  35. Colony
    a territory controlled by a powerful country that exploits the land and the people for its one benefit.
  36. Transnational corporation
    a profit-oriented company engaged in business activities in more than one nation.
  37. Corporate dumping
    the exporting of goods that have either been banned or not approved for sale in the United States because they are dangerous
  38. Biosphere
    the surface layer of the planet and the surrounding atmosphere
  39. Ecosystems
    the mechanisms (plants, animals, and microorganisms) that supply people with the essentials of life.
  40. Environmental justice
    a movement to improve community environments by eliminating toxic hazards.
  41. Environmental racism
    the overwhelming likelihood that toxic-producing plants and toxic waste dumps are located where poor people, especially people of color, live.
  42. Greenhouse effect
    when gases accumulate in Earth’s atmosphere and act like the glass roof of a greenhouse, allowing sunlight in but trapping the heat that is generated.
  43. Culture
    the knowledge (ideas, values, beliefs) that the members of a social organization share.
  44. Cornucopia view of nature
    the belief that nature is a vast and bountiful storehouse to be used by human beings.
  45. Planned obsolescence
    the manufacture of consumer goods designed to wear out. Or existing products are given superficial changes and marketed as new, making the previous products out of date.
  46. Environmental classism
    the poor, because of dangerous jobs and residential segregation, are more exposed than the more well-to-do to environmental dangers.
  47. Who are the key figures in early sociology?
    • o Marx and ‘evolutionary capitalism’
    • § Marx theory believed every society has to gothru capitalism
    • § Marx theory was rejected by many bc he neveridentified with the middle class
    • o C.Wright Mills- The Power Elite
    • § Identified 3 power elites- economic elites,political elites, military elites (all follow each other)
  48. What are the three main sociological
    theories?
    • o Functionalism-Society as a system ofhighly interrelated structures or parts that function or operate togetherharmoniously.
    • § Themost conservative of the theories.
    • § 5social institutions act as an organism· education,politics, family, economy, religion· example-teen pregnancy
    • o Conflict Theory-society constantlychanging in response to social inequality andsocial conflict.
    • o InteractionistPerspective- how individuals make sense of or interpret the social world inwhich they participate.
  49. Who are the sociologists most closely associated
    with these theories?
    • o Symbolicinteractionism- George Herbert Mead, George Blummer
    • o Functionalism-Talcott Parsons, Robert K. Merton
    • o ConflictTheory- Marx
  50. Wallerstein’s world systems theory
    • o Global stratification-Immanuel Wallerstein’s world systems theory
    • § Core- industrialized nations (ruling elites-
    • wealthiest less than 1% of the world)
    • § Semi-periphery-ex. Brazil, most of Europe
    • (middle class) Capitalist industrialized nations
    • § Periphery- lesser developed nations (poverty
    • class)
    • Using Marx to understand the above:
    • -Base/Use
    • -Exchange-bread for beer
    • -Surplus-assembly line creates surplus labor
  51. Mosca vs. Pareto (models of society)
    • o Mosca-Elite model(Elites over managers)
    • § Managers work as a buffer zone protecting the
    • elites
    • § Core->Semi Periphery->Periphery
    • § Lowest zone/danger zone
    • o Pareto-pluralist model(elites and managers side by side)
  52. Mills' Power Elite
    o Identified 3 power elites- economic elites, political elites, military elites (all follow each other)
  53. Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat
    • o In Marxist theory, the proletariat is the class of a capitalist society that does not have ownership of the means of production and whose only means of subsistence is to sell their labour power[1] for a wage or salary. Proletarians are wage-workers, while some refer to those who receive salaries as the salariat. For Marx, however, wage labour may involve getting a salary rather than a wage per
    • se. Marxism sees the proletariat and bourgeoisie (capitalist class) as occupying conflicting positions, since workers automatically wish their wages to be as high as possible, while owners and their proxies wish for wages (costs) to be as low as possible.



    Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat

    • o In Marxist theory, the
    • proletariat is the class of a capitalist
    • society that does not have ownership of the means of production
    • and whose only means of subsistence is to sell their labour power[1] for a wage or salary. Proletarians are
    • wage-workers, while some refer to those who receive salaries as the salariat.
    • For Marx, however, wage labour may involve getting a salary rather than a wage per
    • se. Marxism sees the proletariat and bourgeoisie (capitalist
    • class) as occupying conflicting positions, since workers automatically wish
    • their wages to be as high as possible, while owners and their proxies wish for
    • wages (costs) to be as low as possible.
  54. Chomsky's filters dealing with mass media
    • o 5 filters exist by which news is presented:
    • § Size, ownership, and profit orientation
    • · Upon closer examination… Fewer than 10
    • corporations control 80 percent of media content (newspapers); 5 main networks (NBC, CBS, ABC, CNN, Fox)
    • · Orientation of media is??? Liberal or Conservative???
    • o About 70% conservative 2% liberal the rest are moderate
    • · Youtube- outfoxed.org Fox news news techniques: cut if off
    • o One voice strongly out yelling another voice
    • · Based on profit need; bias is inherent based on:
    • o Pre-selection of people
    • o Internalized preconception (socialization)
    • § Wont find any liberals working at fox
    • o Adaption by personnel to internal constraints
    • § Means if you don’t agree with the boss you don’t
    • work there
    • § Advertising as primary mode of income
    • · Ruling class are the ones that get the message
    • out
    • · Percentages based on print media
    • o Newspaper; approx. 75% income based on advertising
    • § News hole is approx. 35-40%
    • o Magazines: approx. 85% income is based on advertising
    • § News hole is approx 20%
    • o TV: ex, Super Bowl ads= $3 million for one minute ad
    • · Media sources- reliance is based on govt., business, expert sources
    • o Principle of bureaucratic affinity…
    • § One bureaucracy relies on another bureaucracy to
    • exist
    • o Bureaucracy’s primary goal is to?
    • § Survive
    • o When sources are primarily the above, who is excluded
    • § Muir’s Pittsburgh Press-Gazette study
    • · 85% were men
    • · 90% were white
    • o Who are the experts on Sunday a.m. political talk shows? Media Matters study suggests 75% Rep., 10% Dem
    • § Reliance on govt. business sources
    • § “Flak”-bombs sent up to hit planes causing smoke
    • and for them to be blinded from the “truth”
    • · Noise designed to distract the attackers… and?
    • o Accuracy in Media, Media Research Center
    • o Limbaugh, Hannity, Ollie North, Mark Levine, Michael Savage, Laura Schlesinger, Glenn Beck, Delilah, Neal Boortz
    • o Liberal vs. Conservative causes competing for air time
    • o Reagan’s effort to subdue the press corps
    • o Liberal media’s willingness to attack Clinton, Obama
    • o Control of debates by 2-party system
    • § Anti-communism
    • · Recall, this was written in 1986…
    • o Threats to American way of life can be controlled via the media
    • o Now become anti-Arab, Old Cold War Threat, etc., used to mobilize us (recall the Gulf “War”?)

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview