The process of creating or sharing meaning in informal conversation, group interaction, or public speaking.
Individuals who assume the roles of senders & receivers during an interaction.
Verbal utterances, visual images, & nonverbal behaviors to which meaning is attributed during communication.
Thoughts in our minds & interpretations of other messages.
Words, sounds, & actions that are generally understood to represent ideas & feelings.
The process of putting our thoughts & feelings into words & nonverbal cues.
The process of enterpreting another's message.
The setting in which communication occurs, including what precedes & follows what is said.
A communication encounter's location, environmental conditions (temp, lighting, noise level), distance between communicators, seating arrangements, & time of day.
The nature of the relationship that exists between the participants.
The background provided by previous communication episodes between the participants that influence understandings in the current encounter.
The mood & feelings each person brings to a conversation.
The values, attitudes, beliefs, orientations, & underlying assumptions prevalent among people in a society.
Both the route traveled by the message & the means of transportation.
Any stimulus that interferes with the process of sharing meaning.
Sights, sounds, & other stimuli in the environment that draw people's attention away from intended meaning.
Internal distractions based on thoughts, feelings, or emotionalreactions to symbols.
Thoughts & feelings that compete for attention & interfere with the communication process.
Distractions aroused by certain symbols that take our attention away from the main message.
Reactions & responses to messages.
The different communication environments within which people interact, characterized by the # of participants & the extent to which the interaction is formal or informal, also called communication contexts.
The interactions that occur in a person's mind when he or she is talking with himself or herself.
Informal interactions between 2 people who have an identifiable relationship with each other.
2 - 20 people who participants come together for specific purpose of solving a problem or arriving at a decision.
Small Group Communication
One participant, the speaker, delivers a prepared message to a group or audience who has assembled to hear the speaker.
Messages spoken without much conscious thought.
Phrasings learned from past encounters that we judge to be appropriate to the present situation.
Messages put together w/careful thought when we recognize that our known scripts are inadequate for the situation.
The degree of liking or attractiveness in a relationship.
The degree to which one participant is perceived to be more dominant or powerful.
Systems of knowledge shared by a relatively large group of people.
A set of moral principles that may be held by a society, a group, or an individual.
A choice involving 2 unsatisfactory alternatives.
The impression that communicative behavior is both appropriate & effective in a given situation.
A perception of a speaker's knowledge, trustworthiness, & warmth.
Communicating without appearing to be anxious or nervous.
Fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication with others.
A body of symbols (most commonly words) & the systems for their use in messages that are common to the people of the same speech community.
A group of people who speak the same language (also called a language community)
Symbols used by a speech community to represent objects, ideas, & feelings.
A theory claiming that language influences perception.
The direct, explicit meaning a speech community formally gives a word.
The feelings or evaluations we associate with a word.
The position of a word in a sentence & the other words around it.
Cultures in which messages are direct, specific, & detailed.
Cultures in which messages are indirect, general, & ambiguous.
Use words of empathy & support, emphasize concrete & personal language, & show politeness & tentativeness in speaking.
Feminine Styles of Language
Use words of status & problem solving, emphasize abstract & general language, & show assertiveness & control in speaking.
Masculine Styles of Language
Words that clarify meaning by narrowing what is understood from a general category to a particular item or group within that category.
Words that appeal to the senses & help us see, hear, smell, taste, or touch.
Words that narrow a larger category to a smaller group within that category.
Specifying the time or time period that a fact was true or known to be true.
The mental & verbal practice of acknowledging the presence of individual differences when voicing generalizations.
Wording that is full of life, vigorous, bright, & intense.
A direct comparison of dissimilar things
A comparison that establishes a figurative identity between objects being compared.
The importance given to certain words or ideas.
Technical terms whose meanings are understood only by select groups
Language choices that demonstrate respect for listener(s).
Informal vocab used by particular groups in society.
Using words that may apply only to one sex, race, or other group as though they represent everyone.
Bodily actions & vocal qualities that typically accompany a verbal message.
Nonverbal Communication Behaviors
Typed symbols that convey emotional aspects of an online message.
The interpretation of how body motions communicate.
Movements of our hands, arms, & fingers that we use to describe or to emphasize.
Gestures that augment a verbal message.
Gestures can substitute for words.
Gestures that respond to a physical need.
How & how much we look at people with whom we are communicating.
Eye Contact or Gaze
How & how much we look at others when communicating.
The arrangement of facial muscles to communicate emotional states or reactions to messages.
The position & movement of the body.
Posture in relation to another person.
Movement that helps clarify meaning (motivated) or movement that distracts listeners from the point being made (unmotivated).
What & how touch communicates.
The interpretation of the message based on the paralinguistic features.
The voiced but not verbal part of a spoken message.
The highness or lowness of vocal tone.
The loudness or softness of tone.
The speed at which a person speaks.
The sound of a person's voice that distinguishes it from others.
The variety, melody, or inflection in one's voice.
Extraneous sounds or words that interrupt fluent speech.
The interpretation of a person's use of space & distance.
The distance you try to maintain when you interact with other people.
The physical environment over which you exert control.
Objects & possessions we use to decorate the physical space we control.
The interpretation of a person's use of time.
A time orientation that emphasizes doing one thing at a time.
Monochromic Time Orientation
A time orientation that emphasizes doing multiple things at once.
Polychronic Time Orientation
Round & heavy body type.
Muscular & athletic body type
Lean & little muscle development.
The process of receiving, constructing meaning from, & responding to spoken &/or nonverbal messages.
Listening for enjoyment
Listening to understand the meaning of a message.
Listening to learn or remember
Listening to understand the speakers feelings about the message.
Listening to eval the truthfulness or honesty of a message.
The process of focusing on what a speaker is saying regardless of the potential distractions of other competing stimuli.
Decoding a message accurately to reflect the meaning intended by the speaker.
Intellectually identifying with or vicariously experiencing the feelings or attitudes of another.
Experiencing an emotional response parallel to, & as a result observing, another person's actual or anticipated display of emotions.
Feeling concern , compassion, or sorrow for another because of the other's situation or plight.
Any artificial technique used as a memory aid.
Critically analyzing what you have heard to determine its truthfulness.
Statements made by the speaker that are based on facts or observations.
Comforting statements that have a goal to reassure, bolster, encourage, soothe, console, or cheer up.
A broad area of knowledge
Some specific aspect of a subject
An uncritical , nonevaluative process of generating associated ideas.
A visual means of exploring connections between a subject & related ideas.
The study of the intended audience for your speech
The process of tailoring your info to the needs, interests, & expectations of your speech audience.
Brief, often amusing stories
A 1 or 2 sentence statement that provides a sense of closure by driving home the importance of your speech in a memorable way.
The process of customizing your speech material to your specific audience.
The level of confidence that an audience places in the truthfulness of what a speaker says.
A type of communication anxiety (or nervousness), is the level of fear you experience when anticipating or actually speaking to an audience.
Public Speaking Apprehension
Seeing public speaking as a situation in which a speaker must impress an audience with knowledge & delivery, & seeing an audience members as hypercritical judges.
Seeing a speech situation as an opportunity to talk with a number of people about a topic that is important to the speaker & to them.
A method to reduce apprehension by gradually visualizing increasingly more frightening speaking events.
A method to systematically rebuild thoughts about public speaking by replacing anxiety-arousing negative self talk with anxiety-reducing positive self-talk.
Lively & dynamic
Using the tongue, palate, teeth, jaw movement, & lips to shape vocalized sounds that combine to produce a word.
The form & accent of various syllables of a word.
The articulation, inflection, tone, & speech habits typical of native speakers of a language.
A speech that is delivered with only minutes or seconds notice to prepare & usually no notes.
Speech that is researched & planned ahead of time, will vary from presentation to presentation.
An informative presentation that provides carefully researched , in-depth knowledge about a complex topic.
A message sent from one individual to another, often known as the grapevine.
Talking against someone, not merely about them.
3 Distortions that are properties of Serial Communication
Leveling, Sharpening, Assimilation
SIMPLIFYING IT... Reduction & Omission of details. The original message is reduced to a simplified form in order to make it easier for the sender to transmit to the next person.
EMBELLISHING... Details become crystalized & heightened. The details which the sender finds most relevant, exciting, & interesting are highlighting, emphasized, & embellished.
Message reworked in terms of our own attitudes, prejudices, needs, & values. Evaluation of the message/sender changes the message.
What's in it for me?
Always the 1st thing out of your mouth
Tells the purpose
Makes it believable
Preview main points. Tells how you are going to do it.