blood ch 19 flashcards.txt

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rincrocci
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blood ch 19 flashcards.txt
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2011-02-23 01:16:04
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blood ch 19
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  1. blood functions
    • 1. transportation of gases, nutrients & hormones
    • 2. regulation of pH, body temp
    • 3. protection through clotting, WBC
  2. blood components
    • blood plasma (extracellular matrix): 91.5% water, 8.5% solutes (mostly hemoglobin and also hepatocytes which synth proteins)
    • formed elements: RBC, WBC, Platelets
  3. blood cell formation
    • red bone marrow is primary site
    • Negative feedback regulates # of RBCS and platelets
    • makes WBC in response to pathogens
    • pluripotent stem cells can develop into many different types of cells
  4. Red Bone Marrow role
    • primary site of blood cell formation
    • made of yellow fat cells
    • the RBCs that are here are immature and have nucleus to divide. Once mature, they lose nucleus to make way for more hemoglobins to carry oxygen
  5. Do elements divide once they leave bone marrow
    No, except for lymphocytes
  6. What do stem cells produce
    • 1. myeloid cells: give rise to RBC, platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
    • 2. Lymphoid cells: give rise to lymphocytes
  7. RBCs
    • contain hemoglobin
    • donut shaped w/strong plasma membrane
    • glycolipids in membrane responsible for ABO & Rh types
    • lack nucleus & other organelles such as mitochondria
  8. Hemoglobin
    • 4 polypeptide chains w/4 hemes attached
    • transports 23% of total CO2
    • NOxide binds to hemoglobin, releasing NO causing vasodilation..improving blood flow and oxygen delivery
  9. RBC lifecycle
    • 120 days
    • destroyed RBCs removed by macrophages in spleen & liver
    • Globin, Iron are reused
    • Heme ends up in urine or feces
  10. Erythropoiesis
    • Process by which RBC's are produced
    • starts in red bone marrow with proerythroblast
    • negative feedback balances this
  11. hypoxia
    when tissues are NOT receiving enough O2. This causes the release of erythropoietin to MAKE more RBC's
  12. WBCs
    • have Nuclei, NO hemoglobin
    • two types:
    • granular: neutro, baso, eosinophils
    • Agranular: lymphocytes & monocytes
  13. leukocytosis
    a protective response from foreign substances
  14. Leukopenia
    DECREASE in WBC's :(
  15. WBC's lifespan
    • generally live for a few days
    • EXCEPT lymphocytes, which can live for years!
  16. WBC fxn when pathogen present
    WBC's leave the bloodstream and squeeze b/w ENDOTHELIAL cells
  17. neutrophils
    • use LYSOZYMES to kill bacteria
    • Small in #, but act QUICKLY
  18. monocytes
    • differentiate into macrophages to destroy microbes
    • large in #'s, but take LONGer to arrive
  19. basophils
    • release heparin, histamine, seratonin
    • intensify inflammatory reaction
    • ie: antihistamine
  20. eosinophils
    releases enzymes (histaminase) which attack parasites
  21. lymphocytes components
    • B-cells: destroy bacteria & toxins
    • T-cells: attack viruses, fungi, cancer & some bac
    • NK cells: attack wide variety of microbes
  22. Platelets/Thrombocytes
    • Myeloid stem cells develop into MEGAkaryocytes
    • help stop blood loss by clotting
    • disc shaped, NO nucleus, short lifespan
  23. STEM cell transplants (2 types)
    • Bone marrow: replaces bone marrow with healthy individual, taking 2-3 weeks for enough WBC's to be produced
    • Cord-blood: stem cells taken from umbilical cord before birth, can be stored indefinitely
  24. Bone marrow transplant risks
    Graft-vs HOST disease: the red bone marrow transplanted produces T-cells that attack host tissues
  25. Hemostasis
    • A sequence of 3 things that occur to STOP bleeding
    • 1. vascular spasm: smooth muscles in artery CONTRACT
    • 2. platelet PLUG formation: platelets accumulate in large #'s
    • 3. blood clotting
  26. Blood Groups: ABO
    • ABO
    • ABO: if have type A blood, you have the A antigen (and B antibodies, so NO B antigen)
    • O is universal donor, AB is universal ACCEPTOR (has neither antibodies so does not agglutinate
  27. Rh and Hemolytic disease
    Occurs when Rh- mother (w/out Rh antigen) has a Rh+ child. This results in Rh antibodies in mother, which can affect a 2nd child who is Rh+ (mom's antibodies will attack antigen)

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