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What type of sugars are glucose and sucrose?
What type of sugars are starch and cellulose?
What are the four enzymes that break down cellulose and what does each do?
- Endoglucanase - opens polymer chain
- Cellobiohydrolase - cuts sections with 10 or more glucose units
- Exaglucanase- cuts into dimers and trimers
- Beta-Glucosidase- convert dimers and trimers to glucose (inside organism)
What is pathway engineering?
Genetic engineering to modify the metabolic pathways of an organism
What two enzymes are required to digest alcohol?
- Alcohol dehydrogenase
- Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
What is the source for medical insulin, what did it used to use?
- Recombinant bacteria is used now
- Animal pancreas was used
What is a virus?
An obligatory parasite that can't reproduce itself without a living host.
Where does fermentation occur?
What does a virus particle consist of?
- Outer protein shell (capsid)
- Inner core viral genome (either DNA or RNA)
What is the life cycle of a virus?
- Attachment (adheres to hosts surface)
- Penetration (enzyme creates hole, endocytosis)
- Synthesis (Viral DNA transcribed and translated)
- Assembly (subunits join, genetic information packaged)
- Release (cell may burst or viruses bud from cell over time)
What are the three major genes of virus?
- Coat protein
What are plasmids?
Circular naked DNA molecules
What are the two ways DNA replicate in plasmids?
- Rolling circle
What are replicons?
Nucleic acids in charge of controlling their own replication
What are transposons?
Jumping genes without the ability of self replicating
What are the 2 essential parts of tranposons?
- Terminal Inverted Repeats
- A gene for transposition
What are retroposons?
Jumping genes that replicate through an RNA intermediate
What 2 repetitive sequences do retroposons generate?
- Short Interspersed Sequences (SINS)
- Long Interspersed Sequences (LINS)
What are inteins?
Intervening sequences of protein which are spliced out during making the actual functional protein
What do Exteins do?
Make the final functional protein
What are Selfish DNA?
Those DNA that ahve properties of retroposons, SINS and LINS
What is Junk DNA?
When selfish DNA are disabled of replication or movement