the science of collecting, describing, and interpreting data
a collection, or set, of individuals, objects, or events whose properties are to be anazlyzed
a subset of a population
a characteristic of interest about each individual element of a population or sample
the value of the variable associated with one element of a population or sample.
(may be a number, a word, or a symbol)
the set of values collected from the variable from eachof the elements that belong to the sample
a planned activity whoe results yield a set of data
a numerical value summarizing all the data of an entire population
a numerical value summarizing the sample data
a variable that describes or categorizes an element of a population
a variable that quantifies an element of a population
a qualitative variable that characterizes an element of a population.
arithmetic operations are not meaningful for data, and an order cannot be assigned to categories
a qualtiative variable that incorporates an ordered position, or ranking
a quantitative variable that can assume a countable number of values
can assume any values corresponding to isolated points along a line interval...there is a gop between any two values
a quantitative variable that can assume an uncountable number of values.
can assume any value along a line interval, including every possible value between any two values
a sampling method that produces data that systematically differ from the sampled population
biased sampling method
a list, or set, of the elements belonging to the population from which the sample will be drawn
samples that are selected on the basis of being judged "typical."
samples in which the elements to be selected are drawn on the basis of probablility
a sample design in which the elements of the sampling frame are treated equally and there is no subdividing or partitioning of the frame.
a sample selected in such a way that evvery element in the population or sampling frame has an equal probability of being chosen
simple random sample
a sample in which every kth item of the sampling frame is selected, starting from a first element, which is randomly selected from the first k elements
a sample design in which the elements of the sampling frame are subdivided and the sample is chosen in more than one stage
multistage random sampling
a sample obtained by stratifying the population, or sampling grame, and then selecting a number of items from each of the strata by means of a simple random sampling technique
stratified random sample
a sample obtained by stratifying the population, or sampling frame, and then selecting a number of items in proportion to the size of the strata from each strata by means of a simle random sampling technique
proportional stratified sample
a sample obtained by stratifying the population, or sampling frame, and then selecting some or all of the items from some, but not all, of the strata
graphs that are used to summarize qualitative data.
circle graphs or bar graphs
show the amount of data that belong to each category as a proportional part of a circle
show the amount of data that belong to each category as a proportionally sized rectangular area
a bar graph with the bars arranged from the most numerous category to the least numerous category. It includes a line graph displaying the cumulative percentages and counts for the bars
the pattern of variability displayed by the data of a variable
displays the frequency of each value of the variable
displays the data of a sample by representing each data value with a dot positioned along a scale
displays the data of a sample using the actual digits that make up the data values
stem and leaf display
a listing, often expressed in chart form, that pairs values of a variable with their frequency
a bar graph that represents a frequency distribution of a quantitative variable
1. a title, which identifies the population or sample of concern
2. a vertical scale, which identifies the frequencies in the various classes
3. a horizontal scale, which identifies the variable x
a frequency distribution that pairs cumulative frequencies with values of the variable
cumulative frequency distribution
a line graph of a cumulative frequency or cumulative relative frequency distribution
1. a title, wich identifies the population or sample
2. a vertical scal, which identifies either the cumulative frequencies or the cumulative relative frequencies
3. a horizontal scale, which identifies the upper class boundaries
the average with which you are probably most familiar.
the value of the data that occupies the middle position when the data are ranked in order according to size
the number exactly midway between a lowest valued data, L, and a highest valued data, H.
the difference in value between the highest valued data, H, and the lowest valued data, L
a deviation from the mean is the difference between the value of x and th mean x bar.
deviation from the mean
the mean of the absolute values of the deviations from the mean