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2011-02-23 14:27:56

computers test 1
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  1. When was the abacus first used in computation?
    2000 BC
  2. The Pascalene
    Mechanical adding machine (taxes) � by Blaise Pascal in 1642 AD
  3. Staffelwalze
    1671 AD, By Gottfried von Leibniz , more reliable adding machine that adds, subtracts, multiplies, divides, and calculates square roots, - he is co creator of calculus
  4. Analytical machine to perform calculations automatically. It is programmable; known as the father of computers. Machine was never actually completed because he ran out of funds.
    1842 AD by Charles Babbage
  5. Census recording system that uses punched cards
    Transformed calculations from years to months
  6. 1890 AD: Herman Hollerith
    - starts a company that later becomes IBM
  7. John atanasoff (1939)
    Designs and builds first electronic digital computer ABC
  8. Ada of lovelace
    Wrote programs for a nonexistent machine. She was a mathematician.
  9. 1946 AD: Eckert and mauchly
    • Design and build the ENIAC
    • - electronic numberical and calculator
    • - used vacuum tubes. They can do the switch to function
  10. John von Neumann
    - proposes stored program architecture that bears his name.
  11. 1951 � Eckert and mauchly
    Build UNIVAC1
  12. 1957 AD John Backus and his team
    Complete the first compiler
  13. 1958 IBM
    7090 series introduced, first to use transistors
  14. 1964 AD: IBM
  15. Announces the 360, first to use integrated circuitry
  16. 1972 AD: Dennis Ritchie
  17. Develops the C programming language (Bell Labs)
    - precursor of Java
  18. 1975 AD
    • - Altair, the first microcomputer
    • And the Cray-1, the first supercomputer is announced
  19. 1976 AD: DEC
    - introduces its popular minipomter, the VAC 11/780
  20. 1977 AD: Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs
    Release the apply I on April Fool�s Day, and found Apple Computers
  21. 1981 AD
    IBM introduces its own PC
  22. 1984 AD
    Apple introduces the Macintosh
  23. 1985 AD: Bjarne Stroustrop at Bell Labs
    Develops the C++ programming language; the object oriented extension of C; precursor of Java
  24. 1991 AD
    Internet is commercialized
  25. 1994:
    Netscape Navigator 1.0 is released; the WWW takes over
  26. 1995 AD
    Sun releases Java 1.0; object-oriented programming takes off
  27. 1997 AD
    UNO CS department adopts java as object-oriented language support
  28. 1998 AD
    Google is founded by Sergey Brin and Larry Page
  29. 1998 AD
    Apple introduces the iMac, which helps bring Apple back on the computer map
  30. 1999 AD
    Technology pundits predicted a total computer system collapse because of the Y2K bug. Almost no problems were encountered in the New Year.
  31. Computer literacy
    • Awareness of impact of computers in today�s society
    • Current knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses
    • Ability to use computers for relevant tasks
  32. What is a computer
    • Electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory.
    • - accepts data
    • - processes data into information
    • - produces and stores results
  33. Data
    - collection of unprocessed items
  34. Information
    Conveys meaning and is useful to people
  35. What is the information processing cycle
  36. - input
    • - process
    • -output
    • - storage
    • - communication
  37. What is an input device?
    - hardware used to enter data and instruction
  38. What is an output device
    - hardware that conveys information to one or more people
  39. What is the system unit
    - case that contains the electronic components of the computer that are used to process data
  40. What are two main components on the motherboard?
    • - processor
    • - memory
  41. Processor
    - also called a CPU. The electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer
  42. Memory
    Consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions
  43. What is storage
    - holds data, instructions, and information for future use
  44. Storage media
    - physical material on which data, instructions, and ifnromation are stored
  45. Storage device
    - records and retrieves items to and from storage media
  46. What is a USB flash drive?
    • - portable storage device
    • - small and lightweight enough to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket
    • - the average USB flash drive can hold about 2 billion characters
  47. What is a hard disk
    • - provides greater storage capacity than a USB flash drive
    • - most are housed inside the system unit
  48. What is a compact disc?
    • Flat, round, portable metal disc
    • - CD
    • - DVD
  49. What is a communications device?
    • - hardware component that enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information
    • - occurs over cables, telephone lines, cellular radio networks, satellites, and other transmission media
  50. What are the advantages of using computers?
    • - speed
    • - reliability
    • - consistency
    • - storage
    • - communications
  51. What are the disadvantages of using computers?
    • - violation of privacy
    • - public safety
    • - impact on labor force
    • - health risks
    • - impact on environment
  52. What is a network?
    • - collection of computers and devices connected together, often wirelessly
    • - used to share: resources, hardware devices, software programs, data, information, saves time and money.
  53. What is a server?
    • - it controls access to resources on a network
    • - clients, or workstations, request resources from the server
  54. What is the internet?
    - worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals
  55. Why do users access the internet?
    • - communications
    • - research and information
    • - Shopping
    • Banking and investing
    • Classes
    • Entertainment
    • Download music; share information
  56. What is the web?
    - billions of documents, available to anyone connected to the internet
  57. Web pages
    - billions of documents available to anyone connected to the internet
  58. Web site
    Collection of related web pages
  59. Social networking web site or photo sharing community
    - place you share information
  60. Podcast
    Recorded audio stored on a website that can be downloaded
  61. Web page
    - contains text, graphics, audio, video, and links to other web pages
  62. Blog
    - consists of time-stamped articles in a journal formet
  63. Software
    - consists of a series of instructions that tells the computer what to do and how to do it; aka program
  64. Graphical user interface (GUI)
    • - allows you to interact with the software using text, graphics, and visual images, such as icons
    • - controls how you enter data and instructions and how the screen displays information
  65. System software
    - programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices
  66. Operating system
    A set of programs that coordinates all activities among coputer hardware devices