A&P LAB PRACTICAL #2

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Abewley1020
ID:
68450
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A&P LAB PRACTICAL #2
Updated:
2011-02-24 21:57:16
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Skin Bone Histology Skeletal System Articulations
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Skin, Bone Histology, Skeletal System, Articulations
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  1. Cartilage on articular surfaces of bone, embryonic skeleton, nose, trachea, & rib (costal) cartilage.
    Function: smooth surface for movement at joints; flexibility & support.
    Hyaline Cartilage
  2. Cartilage found in the ear, & has elastic fibers.
    • Elastic Cartilage
  3. Cartilage found in intervertebral discs, Pubic Symphysis & Meniscus of the knee, & temporal mandibular joint (TMJ). Has collagen fibers.
    Fibrocartilage
  4. Which tissue has elastic fibers?
    Elastic Cartilage
  5. Which tissue has collagen fibers?
    Fibrocartilage
  6. _________ connective tissue is composed of chondrocytes with a very dense matrix.
    Cartilage
  7. Chondrocytes are found within small empty spaces in the matrix called ________, & C.T. fibers help make up the matrix.
    Lacunae
  8. Types of Cartilage
    Hyaline, Elastic, & Fibrocartilage
  9. ________ connective tissue is made up of living cells (osteocytes) surrounded by a hard, nonliving matrix made up of proteins & calcium phosphate.
    Bone
  10. _________ are found within a space in the matrix called lacuna. (similar to the lacuna of cartilage)
    Osteocytes
  11. The ______ system provides a framework for the body; provides protection to underlying tissues; produces blood cells (red bone marrow); stores nutrients (Ca & Phos).
    Skeletal
  12. Bones can be classified as _____ or _____ bone.
    compact or spongy
  13. Hyaline Cartilage
  14. Bone Tissue
    • Long Bones consist of:
    • - Diaphysis = bone's shaft/body
    • - Epiphysis = proximal & distal ends
    • - Metaphysis = between diaphysis & epiphysis;
    • - Articular Cartilage = hyaline cartilage covering the epiphysis where the bone forms a joint with another bone.
    • - Periosteum = external bone surface
    • - Medullary Cavity = marrow cavity (yellow fatty bone marrow) w/in the diaphysis.
    • - Endosteum = thin membrane lines the internal bone surface facing the medullary cavity.
  15. Bone cell = Osteocyte
  16. Basic structural unit of compact bone.
    Osteon
  17. Haversian Canal or Central Canal = runs longitudinally or the length of the bone, through compact bone containing blood vessels & lymphatic vessel.
  18. Lacunae = empty spaces in the matrix, where osteocytes are found.
  19. Rings or layers of bone.
    Lamella
  20. Volkmann's Canals = runs transversely through compact bone containing blood vessels & ltmphatic vessel.
  21. Structure: Tiny hairlike channels connecting between lacunae & osteocytes to each other & the central canal.

    Function: Transportation of nutrients & wastes.
    Canaliculi
  22. Function of Bones
    • Support - Framework supports body & cradles organs.
    • Protection - Protective case for brain, spinal cord, & vital organs.
    • Muscle levers
    • Mineral Storage - especially Ca & Phos
    • Blood Cell Formation - hemopoiesis occurs w/in the marrow cavities.
  23. Water ground substance allows resiliency; Contains fibers & cells (chondrocytes); Contains no blood vessels or nerves; Surrounded by perichondrium; 3 Types.
    Cartilage
  24. - W/in certain bones, a C.T. that produces RBC, WBC, & platelets.
    - Consists of developing blood cells, adiposcytes, fibroblasts, & macrophages within a network of reticular fibers.
    - Found in spongy or trabeculae of bone
    Red Bone Marrow
  25. When a bone ceases to grow in length at about ages 18-21, the cartilage in the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone; the resulting bony structure is known as the ____.
    Epiphyseal Plate
  26. In a growing bone, each metaphysis contains an _____ _______, a layer of hyaline cartilage that allows the diaphysis of the bone to grow in length.
    Epiphyseal (growth) Plate
  27. A hollow, cylindrical space within the diaphysis that contains fatty yellow bone marrow in adults.
    Medullary Cavity
  28. A thin membrane that lines the internal bone surface facing the medullary cavity. It contains a single layer of cells & a small amount of C.T.
    Endosteum
  29. About 25% water, 25% collagen fibers, & 50% crystallized mineral salts.
    Extracellular Matrix
  30. 4 types of cells present in bone tissue
    • - Osteogenic Cells
    • - Osteoblasts
    • - Osteocytes
    • - Osteoclasts
  31. Stem Cells from mesenchyme ; Only bone cells to undergo cell division ; Develops into an Osteoblasts ; Found along inner portion of periosteum, in the endosteum, & in the canals w/in bone that contain blood vessels.
    Osteogenic Cells
  32. Bone-building cells ; Forms bone matrix; Initiate calcification ; Become Osteocytes.
    Osteoblasts
  33. Mature bone cells; Main cells in bone tissue; Maintains bone tissue.
    Osteocytes
  34. Huge cells ; Concentrated in the endosteum ; Releases lysosomal enzymes & acids that digest protein & mineral components of the underlying bone matrix, Resorption.
    Osteoclast
  35. Spongy bone consists of lamellae arranged in an irregular lattice of thin columns called ______.
    Trabeculae
  36. ______ bone tissue does not contain osteons.
    Spongy
  37. The spaces between trabeculae help make bones lighter & can sometimes be filled with ______________, which contains numerous small blood vessels.
    Red Bone Marrow
  38. _________ receive nourishment from the blood circulating through the blood vessels in the spaces between trabeculae.
    Osteocytes
  39. Slitlike opening ; narrow ; for nerves or blood vessels.
    • Fissure
    • (in the picture = superior orbital fissure)
  40. Round or oval opening through a bone for nerves or blood vessels.
    • Foramen
    • (in picture = mental foramen of mandible)
  41. Depression
    • Fossa
    • (In picture = fossa for cerebellum of occipital)
  42. Groove along a bone; blood vessels, nerves, or tendons sit in these grooves.
    Sulcus
  43. Canal-like passageway
    • Meatus
    • (In picture = External Auditory Meatus)
  44. ANY bony prominence
    • Process
    • (In picture = Mastoid Process of Temporal bone)
  45. Flat surface where the bone articulates (from a joint); the surface is also smooth.
    Facet
  46. Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck.
    • Head
  47. Narrow ridge of bone.
    • Crest
  48. Raised area above a condyle.
    Epicondyle
  49. Rounded articular projection that articulates with another bone.
    • Condyle
  50. Small, narrow ridge of bone
    Line
  51. Large projection/Blunt surface (muscle attachment)
    • Trochanter
  52. Small projection
    Tubercle
  53. Large projection ; Rounded
    • Tuberosity
  54. Cavity within a bone
    • Sinus
  55. The axial skeleton includes which bones?
    Skull bones, hyoid bone, sternum, ribs, & vertebrae
  56. The appendicular skeleton includes which bones?
    of the appendages & the bones that attach the appendages to the axial skeleton.
  57. The human skeleton has 206 bones that are subdivided into 2 major classes:
    the Axial Skeleton & the Appendicular Skeleton
  58. Lateral Skull
  59. Cranial View of Skull
  60. Posterior View of Skull
  61. Anterior View of Skull
  62. Mandible
  63. Maxilla
  64. Orbits
  65. Nasal Cavity

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