Skin, Bone Histology, Skeletal System, Articulations
Cartilage on articular surfaces of bone, embryonic skeleton, nose, trachea, & rib (costal) cartilage.
Function: smooth surface for movement at joints; flexibility & support.
Cartilage found in the ear, & has elastic fibers.
Cartilage found in intervertebral discs, Pubic Symphysis & Meniscus of the knee, & temporal mandibular joint (TMJ). Has collagen fibers.
Which tissue has elastic fibers?
Which tissue has collagen fibers?
_________ connective tissue is composed of chondrocytes with a very dense matrix.
Chondrocytes are found within small empty spaces in the matrix called ________, & C.T. fibers help make up the matrix.
Types of Cartilage
Hyaline, Elastic, & Fibrocartilage
________ connective tissue is made up of living cells (osteocytes) surrounded by a hard, nonliving matrix made up of proteins & calcium phosphate.
_________ are found within a space in the matrix called lacuna. (similar to the lacuna of cartilage)
The ______ system provides a framework for the body; provides protection to underlying tissues; produces blood cells (red bone marrow); stores nutrients (Ca & Phos).
Bones can be classified as _____ or _____ bone.
compact or spongy
Long Bones consist of:
- Diaphysis = bone's shaft/body
- Epiphysis = proximal & distal ends
- Metaphysis = between diaphysis & epiphysis;
- Articular Cartilage = hyaline cartilage covering the epiphysis where the bone forms a joint with another bone.
- Periosteum = external bone surface
- Medullary Cavity = marrow cavity (yellow fatty bone marrow) w/in the diaphysis.
- Endosteum = thin membrane lines the internal bone surface facing the medullary cavity.
Bone cell = Osteocyte
Basic structural unit of compact bone.
Haversian Canal or Central Canal = runs longitudinally or the length of the bone, through compact bone containing blood vessels & lymphatic vessel.
Lacunae = empty spaces in the matrix, where osteocytes are found.
Rings or layers of bone.
Volkmann's Canals = runs transversely through compact bone containing blood vessels & ltmphatic vessel.
Structure: Tiny hairlike channels connecting between lacunae & osteocytes to each other & the central canal.
Function: Transportation of nutrients & wastes.
Function of Bones
Support - Framework supports body & cradles organs.
Protection - Protective case for brain, spinal cord, & vital organs.
Mineral Storage - especially Ca & Phos
Blood Cell Formation - hemopoiesis occurs w/in the marrow cavities.
Water ground substance allows resiliency; Contains fibers & cells (chondrocytes); Contains no blood vessels or nerves; Surrounded by perichondrium; 3 Types.
- W/in certain bones, a C.T. that produces RBC, WBC, & platelets.
- Consists of developing blood cells, adiposcytes, fibroblasts, & macrophages within a network of reticular fibers.
- Found in spongy or trabeculae of bone
Red Bone Marrow
When a bone ceases to grow in length at about ages 18-21, the cartilage in the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone; the resulting bony structure is known as the ____.
In a growing bone, each metaphysis contains an _____ _______, a layer of hyaline cartilage that allows the diaphysis of the bone to grow in length.
Epiphyseal (growth) Plate
A hollow, cylindrical space within the diaphysis that contains fatty yellow bone marrow in adults.
A thin membrane that lines the internal bone surface facing the medullary cavity. It contains a single layer of cells & a small amount of C.T.
About 25% water, 25% collagen fibers, & 50% crystallized mineral salts.
4 types of cells present in bone tissue
- Osteogenic Cells
Stem Cells from mesenchyme ; Only bone cells to undergo cell division ; Develops into an Osteoblasts ; Found along inner portion of periosteum, in the endosteum, & in the canals w/in bone that contain blood vessels.
Bone-building cells ; Forms bone matrix; Initiate calcification ; Become Osteocytes.
Mature bone cells; Main cells in bone tissue; Maintains bone tissue.
Huge cells ; Concentrated in the endosteum ; Releases lysosomal enzymes & acids that digest protein & mineral components of the underlying bone matrix, Resorption.
Spongy bone consists of lamellae arranged in an irregular lattice of thin columns called ______.
______ bone tissue does not contain osteons.
The spaces between trabeculae help make bones lighter & can sometimes be filled with ______________, which contains numerous small blood vessels.
Red Bone Marrow
_________ receive nourishment from the blood circulating through the blood vessels in the spaces between trabeculae.
Slitlike opening ; narrow ; for nerves or blood vessels.
Fissure (in the picture = superior orbital fissure)
Round or oval opening through a bone for nerves or blood vessels.
Foramen(in picture = mental foramen of mandible)
(In picture = fossa for cerebellum of occipital)
Groove along a bone; blood vessels, nerves, or tendons sit in these grooves.
(In picture = External Auditory Meatus)
ANY bony prominence
(In picture = Mastoid Process of Temporal bone)
Flat surface where the bone articulates (from a joint); the surface is also smooth.
Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck.
Narrow ridge of bone.
Raised area above a condyle.
Rounded articular projection that articulates with another bone.
Small, narrow ridge of bone
Large projection/Blunt surface (muscle attachment)