foot and ankle
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what type of joint is talocrural joint and what are its movements?
- dorsiflexion, planatarflexion
what type of joint is subtalar joint and what are its movements?
- inversion , eversion
- inversion of heel
- adduction forefoot
- eversion of heel
- abduction forefoot
distal head of metatarsals
across cuboid and cuneiforms
medial longitudinal arches
calcaneus to distal head of 1st metatarsal
lateral longitudinal arches
calcaneus to distal head of 5th metatarsal
1st degree sprain
- most common
- mild stretching of ligament
- mild pain
- ROM almost normal
- speical/functional tests=normal
- RX: PIER
2nd degree sprain
- moderate tearing of ligament
- moderate pain
- tender over affected ligament
- special test=positive
- RX: PIER, crutches, aircast REFERRAL
3rd degree sprain
- complete ligament rupture
- severe pain
- speical test: positive
- RX: PIER, REFERRAL, brace, aircast, crutches, surgery?
1st degree strain
- ROM normal
- pain at end of ROM
- participation= judgement call
- Rx: PIER
2nd degree strain
- ROM decreased
- strength is decreased
- participation= not reccommended
- Rx: PIER, REFERRAL, crutches
3rd degree starin
- AROM/ strength: movement not created by involved muscle
- participation= definately not reccommended
- Rx; PIER, REFERRAL, immobalize, surgery
what is location of bursitis
what are signs of bursitis and how to protect it?
- red tender unable to wear footwear
- sofeten or change fotowear elevate heal
whatare signs and symptoms of contusions and how can you react?
- pain weakness, hematoma, edema
- react by PIER
what would be MOI for torn peroneal retinaculum?
direct blow, inversion sprasin, forceful dorsiflexion
what are signs and symptoms of torn retinaculum and how can you react to this?
- snapping sensation, pain, anke instability, discoloration, edema
- can use PIER, balance training
what is neuroma?
thickening or nerve tissue
what are signs and symptoms of neuroma and how can you react to this?
- tingling, numbness, pain in foot
- can react by PIER, padding, orthotics, change footwear
explain the pain grade( steps I-IV)
- I-occurs after activity
- II-occurs befroe and after activity but doesnt affect perfformance
- III- II, but does affect performance
- IV-severe pain, activity impossible
medial tibial stress syndrome
- "shin splints"
- feel like falling
- stress fracture
- interosseous membrane irritation
what is MOI of medial tibial stress syndrome, what are signs how can it be treated?
- MOI:weakness, imbalance, type of shoes, body weight
- s/s: inflammation, small hematoms, weakness
- treated: PIER,stretch, activity modification,ortthotics
what is compartment compression syndrome and what is MOI?
- increase in tissue fluid pressure alters the circulation and finction of tissue within that compartment
- acute, chronic, recurrent
- MOI: mild trauma with bleeding, exercise
what is MOI of acute CCS?
- compression of nerves, muscle and vascular tissues
- overuse, repitition
- too much too soon
MOI of tendinopathy
- • Tension applied quickly
- • Tension applied obliquely
- • Tension applied prior to blunt trauma
- • Maximal contractions
- • Forced dorsiflexion
inflammation of a tendon
- degeneration of tendon sturcture
- may rupture
inflammation b/w peritendon sheath and tendon
- acute- hyperextension to mp joint
- chronic- pronation, microtrauma to spring ligament
- sudden pain, lower 1/3 tibia
- participation affected
- xray positive 2 weeks later
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