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What is I/O psychology? Define it
The application of psychological principles, theory, research to the work setting
What is SIOP?
Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. An association to which may I/O psychologists, both practioners and researchers, belong to. Designated as Devision 14 of APA.
In I/O psychology what do we mean when we say "Science Practitioner Model?"
Means to apply science into life. A model that uses scintifice tools and research in the practice of I/O psychology.
What is "time and motion study"?
Studies that broke every action down into its constituent parts, timed those movements w/a stop watch, and develped new and m ore efficient movements that would reduce fatigue and increase productivity.
Dealt with the study on the electric company. When they lowered the lighting or raised it they got improvement. It was to lower fatigue to increase productivity.
What is meant by the term "Scintific Management?'
- It has to deal with the time and motion study.
- A movement based on principles developed by Federick Taylor who suggested that there was one best and most effiecient way to perform various jobs.
What is meant by the term "Human Relations Movement?'
The results of the Hawthorne studies were part of this movement, which focused on the work attitudes and the newly discovered emotional worl of the worker.
What did the title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlaw.
- It out law discrimination due to race, color, sex and religion.
- Federal legislation that pohibits employement discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin, which define what are known as proctcted gorups. Prohibits not only intentional discrimination, but also practices that have the unintentional effect of discriminating against individuals because of their race, color, national origin, religion or sex.
What did the Army Alpha and Army Beta test measure and for what purpose?
- Used to select and place recruits in WWI.
- A.A: verbal exam
- A.B: non verbal
Describe the Hawthorn Studies
- It was done in an Illinois Electric company. Even when they lowered the lights or raised them, the productivity went up. Meaning that if you pay attention to your workers they will be more productive.
- Research done at the Hawthorne, Illinois Plant of the Western Electric Company tha begas as attempts to increase productivity by manipulation lightin, rest breaks, and work hours. This research showed the important role that workers attitudes play in productivity.
What is the Hawthorn Effect?
- If you manipulate a variable you can get a negative or positive affect.
- The change in behavior that results from researchers paying attention to the workers.
The Hawthorn studies revealed what four things?
- 1. The existance of informal work groups
- 3. The importance of employee attitudes
- 2. The values of Asympathetic supervisor
- 3. The need to treat workers like people not general human capital
Name the six common areas of concentration for industrial psychology
- 1. Selection and Placement
- 2. Traning and development
- 3. Organizational development
- 4. Perfomance management
- 5. Quality of work life
- 6. Engineering Psychology
What are the main principals of Scintific Management?
- Using time and motion studies.
- A movement based on principles F. Taylor who suggested that there was one best and most efficient way to perform various jobs.
What are the four main methods of inquiry in the field of I/O psychology?
- 1. Experiment
- 2. Quazi Experiment
- 3. Survery Research
- 4. Obsevation
What is the difference between a quasi experiment and an experiment.
Quasi: they selection the individual for a particular circumstance. Participants are assigned to different conditions, but random assigment to conditions is not possible
Experiment: randomized. participants are randomly assigned to different conditions
What does the term generalizability mean in relation to scientific research?
- Can you generalize results in areas that have been sampled in reasearch studies
- - sample
- - population
What does the term "control" mean in relation to an experiment?
- to eliminate factors that would influence the results and make them more reliable
- - validity generalization
Define Mean , Median, Mode
- Mean: Average
- Median: Middle in distribution
- Mode: most common
What does the term "statistical significance" mean?
indicates that the probability of the observed statistic is less than the stated significance level adopted by the researcher (commonly p<=.05) A statically significant finding indicates that, if the null hypothesis were true, the results found are unlikely to occur by chance and the null hypothesis is rejected.
What is a correlation coefficient?
Statistic assessing the bivariate, linear association betwen 2 variables. Provides information about both the magnitude (numerical value) and the direction (+ or -) of the relationship between 2 variables.
Describe Meta Analysis in detail.
- combines the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses. In its simplest form, this is normally by identification of a common measure of effect size, for which a weighted average might be the output of a meta-analyses. but the general aim of a meta-analysis is to more powerfully estimate
- the true "effect size" as opposed to a smaller "effect size" derived in a single study under a given single set of assumptions and conditions.
- Statistical method for combining and analyzing results from many studies to draw a genearl conclusion about relationships among variables.
What is meant by measurement "reliability?"
consistency or stability of a measure
Name and describe one of "validity" used in test development.
- Content validation:
- The content of the selection procedure represents an adequate sample of important work behaviors
- can't measure abtract concepts
Name and describe two methods for determining test reliability.
Tests-retest reliability: calculated by correlating measurements taken at time one with measurements taken at time 2
equivalent forms: calculated by correlating measurement from a sample of individuals who complete 2 different forms of the same test
Describe Criterion Related Validity
Validity approach that is demostrated by correlating a test score w/a performance measre improves researchers confidence in the inference that people w/higher tests scores have higher performance
People differ on many variables. In class we talked about three of the most important differences. What are they?
What is the important of g factor in predicting a person's success at work?
- general metal ability
- if info process demands of a job are higher persons with low mental ability are not as likely to be successful as high mental individual.
- -personlaity traits
Define general mental ability. What is it?
the nonspecific capacity to reason, learn, and solve problems many of a whide variety of ways and cirmumstances.
What do we mean when we say, "Geocentric Model?"
- Tendency to understand and predict behavior of workers simply by examing their "g"
What is the Flynn effetct?
phenomenon in which new generations appear to be smarter than their parents by a gain of 15 pts in average intelligence test score per generation
What is meant by the Five Factor Model of Personality?
- A taxonomy of 5 personality factors: OCEAN
- Openess to experience
List and describe the five personality characteristics in the Five Factor Model
- Openess to new experience: curious, imaginative, independent, and intelligent
- Agreeableness: good natured, cooperative, trusting, friendly
- Conscientiousness: reponsible, phedent, self-control
- Neurotic (emotional stability): secure, calm, anxiety, and low emotions
- Extraversion: sociable, talkitive, and energetic
What is meant by the term, "Functional Personality at Work?"
the way that an individual behaves, handles emotions, and accomplishes tasks in a work setting: a comibination of the Big 5 factors
Define: knowledge, skill, and experience
- skills: practiced acts such as shooting a bball
- knowledge: a collection of discrete but related facts and information about a particular domain. It's acquired trhough formal education or training or accumulated through experience.
What is meant when we use the term Core Competency?
- sets of behaviors, usually learned by experience that are instrumental in accomplishment of desired org. results and outcome
- Provides an organization w/a set of core characteristics that distiguish it from other organizaitons
What is Emotional Intelligence?
A proposed kind of intelligence focused on people's awareness of their own and other's emotions
Define the term Mental Testing
instrument designed to measure a subjects ability to reason, plan, and solve problems and intelligence test.
What is the value of importance of Norming in testing?
Comparing a test score to other relevant tests scores. giving value to a number
What is a test battery?
collection of tests that usually classes a variety of different attributes
What is the difference between Speed and Power Testing
Speed: has rigid and demanding time limits so most test takers will be unable to finish the test in the allowed time
Power: has no rigid time limits; enough time is given for a majority of the test takers to complete all of thest items.
What is the difference between a group and an individual test?
group: can be administered to a large groups of individual; often valuable in reducing the costs (both in time and money) of testing many applicants
ind: test given only on an individual basis
Given one example of a performance test
- test administered to a candidate
- dental hygienist position: tray cleaning and scaling teeth and preparing a syringe of novocaine
Define test "Bias"
technical and statistical term that deals exclusively w/a situation where a given test results in errors of prediction for a subgroup
Define test "Fairness"
value judgement about actions or decisions based on test scores
What is the role of culture in testing?
A ssytem in which individuals share meanings and common ways of viewing events and objects
what is multiple correlation?
statistic that represents the overall linear association between several variable (cog. ability, personality) on the one hand, and a single variable (job performance) on the other hand.
Name any two variable that are inversely correlated?
Less sleep the more tired
In what circumstance would one use a mechanical aptitude test
- Bernett Mechanical comprehension test
- examing scissors-experience or logic
- choosing applicants for trade position of sheet metal worker or plumber
Name and describe the two types of integrity tests
Overt integrety tests: ask questions directly about post honesty behavior (stealing, etc) and attitudes toward various behaviors such as employee theft
Personality based integrity test: infers honesty and integrity from questions dealng with broad constructs such as consciousness, reliability social responsibility and awareness
What is meant by the term "Individual Assessment?"
situation in which only one candidate (or a very few) is assessed on many different attributes
Describe Assessment Centers in detail
collection of procedures for evaluation that is administered to grups of individuals: assessments are typically performed by multiple assessors
What are the five characteristics of an assessment center
- 1. It is a process
- 2. assess groups of plp
- 3. usually for a supervisory or leadership position
- 4. multiple trained assessors
- 5. multiple exercises
Give two examples of assessment center exercises
- -fish bowl
- -problem employee exercise
- -press conference
- -project management exercise
- -citizen or customer meeting
Why is Meta Analysis important?
Sleeping on the back is the most effective way to reduce the risk of SIDS. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, many exams on it but never really put it together would of saved many babies
Name any two variables that are inversely correlated
less sleep more tired you are
What is the importance of variability in psychological measurement?
- Grades- differentiates correlate with success
- realte something
Why do company's measure employee job perfomance?
- pay raise
- legal issues
Define job performance
actions or behaviors relevant to the organizations goal; measured in terms of each individuals proficiency
what is the difference between job performance and job effectivenss?
j.p: actions or behaviors relevant to the organizations goals: measured in
j.e: evaluation of the results of performance: often controlled by the factors beyond the actions of an individual
Explain the Criterion Problem and give an example
an outcome variable that describes important aspects or demands of the job: the variable that we predict when evaluating the validity of a predictor
people who score higher w/be better employees
What is the purpose of job evaluation? Not to be confused with job analysis
- method for making internal pay decisions by comparing job title to one another and determining their relative merit by way of these comparisions
- (determine compensation level $)
What is Criterion Deficiency? Give an example
occurs when an actual criterion is missing information that is part of the behavior one is trying to measure
- theoretical criterion: omega 3
- 80% fish oil: didn't contain as much omega 3 as it claimed
- 20% stimulant epredrine
What is Criterion Contamination? example
- occurs when an actual criterion includes information unrelated to the behavior one is trying to measure
- observed criterion : 20% epredrine omega-3
Name one example of an objective job perfomance measure
usually a quantitative count of results of work such as sales, volume, complaint letter, and output
Name one example of a judgmental job performance measure
- supervisory ratings
- - evaluation made of the effectiveness of an individuals work behavior most often by supervisors in the context of a yearly performance evaluation
Name two examples of Counterproductive Work Behaviors
- Organizational deviance
- Interpersonal deviance
Name two examples of organizational deviance
- property deviance: theft, property damage, subotage
- Production deviance: absence, tardiness, long breaks, sloppy work
what is job analysis?
process that determines the important tasks of a job and the human attributes necessary to successfully perfom those tasks
Name at least four reasons for doing job analysis
- job description
- job design
- promotion job assingment
what is meant by the term "task oriented" job analysis
approach that begins w/a statement of the actual tasks as well as what is accoplished by those tasks
what is meant by the term "worker Oriented" job analysis?
approach that focuses on the attributes of the worker necessary to accomplish the tasks
what are the steps in job analysis
- 1. job observation
- 2. review of job info
- 3. interviews w/workers and supervisors
- 4. questionnaire to workers
- 5. subject matter experts
- 6. determine
what is meant by the term electronic job perfomance monitoring
monitoring work processes w/electronic devices: can be very cost effective and has the potential for providing detailed and accurate work log
what is competency modeling
process that identifies the characteristics desired across all individuals and jobs w/in an org. these characteristics should predict behavior across a wide variety of tasks and settings and privide the org. w/a set of core characteristics that distinguish it from other org.
what does the term "comparable worth" mean?
notion that people who are performing jobs of comparable worth to the organizaiton should recive comparable pay