earth history part 2

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earth history part 2
2011-02-23 19:16:00

minerals, rocks
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  1. Lithosphere
    Earth's crust and mantle, tectonic plates
  2. Asthenosphere
    ductile, molten underneath lithosphere
  3. Biosphere
    global biological system, The part of the earth and its atmosphere in which living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life
  4. Hydrosphere
    • the liquid water component of the earth,
    • covers about 70% of the surface of the Earth
  5. Atmosphere
    the layer of gases surrounding the earth
  6. Mineral
    any naturally formed solid substance having a reasonably definite chemical structure, distinctive properties that reflect its composition and regular atomic structure
  7. Rock identification characteristics
    • Hardness - Mohs scale
    • Cleavage - pattern of breakage
    • Density - mass volume per unit
    • Unique crystallized structure
    • iron will darken, aluminum & silica lighten
  8. Earth materials
    circa 75% of the weight of Earth’s crust is composed of oxygen and silicon
  9. Quartz
    SiO2 – resistant to weathering, will be one of the older rocks
  10. Feldspar
    most common, 60% of crust weight – aluminosilicates (A, Si, O) – good cleavage
  11. Mica
    extreme plane cleavage – includes muscovite (light) and biotite (dark)
  12. Pyroxene and Amphibole
    silicates of Al, Ca, Mg, Fe – usually black to dark green
  13. Olivine
    silicates of Fe, Mg, isolated silicates, olive green color, weathers easily
  14. Garnet
    aluminosilicates of Fe, Mg, Ca, Mn, red, brown and yellow
  15. Calcite & Argonite
    CaCo3 –main constituent of limestone and marble, important biological minerals
  16. Halite
    NaCl (salt) cleaves to cues, an evaporite
  17. Gypsum
    soft hydrous calcium sulfate
  18. Galena
    PoS (lead sulfide) – dense, cube cleavage