pharm packet 2

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pharm packet 2
2011-03-02 17:57:03
pharm packet

pharm packet 2
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  1. sympathetic or adrenergic nervous system
    fight or flight system
  2. parasympathetic or cholinergic system
    rest and restore system
  3. seizure
    period of altered brain function due to recurrent abnormal electrical impulses
  4. status epilepticus
    ongoing seizures
  5. anticonvulsant drugs
    used to help prevent seizures
  6. tranquilizers (benzos)
    drugs used to calm animals and reduce anxiety and aggression
  7. sedatives (barbs)
    drugs used to decrease irritability and excitement in animals
  8. anti-anxiety
    used to lessen anxiousness but do not cause drowsiness
  9. SSRIs (SelectiveSerotonin Reuptake Inhibitors)
    serotonin regulates emotion, anxiety, agitation and sleep
  10. TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressants)
    work to increase availability of serotonin, used to treat separation anxiety and behavior problems
  11. acepromazine, prochlorperazine (Compazine)
    phenothiazine drugs
  12. Compazine
    GI problems with sedative effect, antiemetic
  13. xylazine (Rompun), dexmedetomidine (Dexdomitor)
    Alpha-2 agonist drugs
  14. Alpha-2 Agonists
    Profound cardiovascular effects, cats will vomit, slows insulin resulting in hypergylcemia, sed and analgesic in minor surgeries
  15. analgesics
    drugs used to provide pain relief
  16. narcotic (opioid) agonists
    drugs typically used to treat moderate to severe pain
  17. narcotic receptors
    mu, kappa, delta, sigma, and epsilon
  18. antitussive, antidiarrheal, pre and post anelgesic and sedative
    narcotic agonist uses
  19. narcotic (Opioid) antagonists
    drugs that block the binding of opioids to their receptors
  20. morphine, meperidine, hydromorphone, butorphanol, buprenorphine, fentanyl, codeine
    narcotic drugs
  21. meperidine
    Demerol, less than 2 hr duration, less side effects than morphine, used for acute pain
  22. Torbutrol, Torbugesic
    butorphanol, mild pain, mild sedation, ANTITUSSIVE
  23. Buprenex
    buprenorphine, moderate pain, less vomiting and salivation, good with cats transmucosal
  24. tramadol (narcotic-like)
  25. Narcan (narcotic antagonist)
  26. anesthetics
    drugs used to produce loss of sensation, muscle relaxation and or loss of consciousness
  27. general anesthetics
    affect CNS and produce loss of sensation with partial or complete loss of consciousness
  28. local anesthetics
    block nerve transmission in the area of application and produce loss of sensation without loss of consciousness
  29. sevoflurane, SevoFlo
    inhalant anesthetic drug, metabolized by lungs not liver
  30. CNS stimulants
    drugs used to reverse CNS depression
  31. pentobarbital sodium (Sleep away and Beuthanasia D) and Fatal-Plus
    euthanasia agents
  32. inflammation
    process that can occur in the body in response to tissue damage
  33. fever
    increase of body temperature above normal, helps fight disease by destroying foreign invaders
  34. pain
    an unpleasant sensation that is usually associated with tissue damage
  35. anti-inflammatory
    drug that prevents or reduces inflammation
  36. antipyretic
    drug that prevents or reduces fever
  37. analgesic
    drug that prevents or reduces pain
  38. histamine
    chemical substance that triggers an inflammatory response
  39. antihistamine
    drug that inhibits the release of histamine
  40. Iatrogenic
    condition caused by treatment ordered by vet
  41. glucocorticoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamines and muscle relaxants
    4 groups of drugs to control inflammation
  42. hormone
    chemical substance produced in one part of the body that is transported to another part of the body where it influences and regulates cellular and organ activity
  43. corticosteroids
    hormones produced in the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland
  44. glucocorticoids, cortisol is the main form
    have an anti-inflammatory property, used to treat systemic disease such as cancer and Addison's and allergic responses
  45. Addison's
    hypoadrenocorticism, too little steroids in the body
  46. minerocorticoids, Aldosterone
    helps the body retain Na and H2O
  47. pruritis, anaphylaxis
    itching, life-threatening allergy
  48. cyclooxygenase
    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug NSAIDS
  49. cox-1
    more involved with stomach, will see GI irritation
  50. cox-2
    more involved with inflammation
  51. melena
    black, 'tarry' feces
  52. antacids
    when using NSAIDS do not administer _____ because they can affect the absorption of other drugs
  53. aspirin
    use with caution in cats as very susceptible to overdose due to inability to metabolize rapidly
  54. phenylbutazone (bute)
    primarily used in horses (NSAID)
  55. DMSO
    anti-inflammatory that is used as a carrier for other drugs, garlic taste in the mouth and skin irritation, penetrates skin (NSAID)
  56. Adequan
    used in dogs and horses to promote healing of synovial membrane (NSAID)
  57. glucosamine/chondroitin
    used primarily for osteoarthritis to aid in maintaining cartilage structure and function (NSAID)
  58. carprofen (Rimadyl)
    in dogs relieves inflammation and pain associated with degenerative joint disease (COX-2 NSAIDS) beefy taste
  59. EtoGesic
    once a day dosing or in dogs an anti-inflammatory and analgesic for osteoarthritis (COX-2 NSAID)
  60. Deramaxx
    used in dogs to treat pain and inflammation associated with orthropedic surgery and osteoarthritis (COX-2 NSAID)
  61. Metacam
    dogs and cats used to treat pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and surgery and to reduce fever. Available in oral suspension (COX-2 NSAID)
  62. Zubrin
    dogs to treat acute and chronic pain and inflammation of osteoarthritis and surgery, dissolvable tablets (COX-2 NSAIDS)
  63. pruitis, allergic reactions, motion sickness, anaphylactic shock
    clinical uses for antihistamines
  64. diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
    antihistamine, alergy pill and injectable
  65. chlorpheniramine
  66. methocarbamol (Robaxin-V)
    used to treat pain associated with muscle spasms and toxic injestions (cig butts)
  67. emesis
    act of vomiting
  68. chemoreceptor trigger zone CRTZ
    detects chemical changes and will respond by stimulating the activation of the vomiting center
  69. dopamine
    neurotranmitter for the chemoreceptor trigger zone
  70. acetylcholine
    neurotransmitter for the vomiting center
  71. centrally acting drug
    affect the vomiting center in the medulla of the brain (emetic drug)
  72. local acting drugs
    action is induced in the stomach directly (emetic drug)
  73. apomorphine
    central acting emetic drug, morphine derivative to induce vomiting in dogs, administered in conjunctival sac
  74. xylazine (Rompun)
    central acting emetic drug, used to induce vomiting in cats
  75. hydrogen peroxide
    used to induce vomiting, home remedy, local acting emetic
  76. procainamide derivative
    used to treat parvovirus enteritis, type of anti-emetic
  77. vestibular disturbances
    inner ear abnormalities that cause balance problems
  78. prochlorperazine (Compazine)
    used to treat vomiting, GI diarrhea and motion sickness, phenothiazine
  79. metoclopramide (Reglan)
    gets things moving through GI tract, do not use with obstructions, procainamide
  80. diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
    motion sickness and vestibular disease
  81. ulcers
    areas of mucosal erosion
  82. antacids
    promote the healing of ulcers by neutralizing HCl
  83. histamine blockers
    work by blocking histamine receptors on cells that line the stomach which reduces gastric acid secretion
  84. mucosal protectants
    work by coating and protecting ulcers from stomach acid
  85. prostaglandin synthetics
    work by surpressing gastric secretions and increasing mucus production
  86. proton pump inhibitors
    work by binding certain enzymes on the surface of stomach cells so that the cell cannot secrete HCl
  87. Amphogel
    binds with phosphorus so may also be useful in renal failure, antacid
  88. famotidine (Pepcid)
    more potent and fewer side effects that Zantac, histamine blocker
  89. antidiarrheal
    drug that decreases peristalsis of the GI tract
  90. anticholinergics, opiate-related drugs, absorbents and protectants, probiotics and antibiotics
    categories of drugs used to treat or prevent diarrhea
  91. laxatives (cathartics, purgatives
    drugs that increase fluid content of feces that results in softened feces for easier passage
  92. osmotic laxatives
    hold water in gastrointestinal tract to increase moisture content of stool
  93. bulk laxatives
    absorb water and expand to provide increased bulk and moisture content to stool
  94. lubricants
    make stool slippery
  95. emollients
    reduce water tension of stool, allowing water to enter
  96. irritants
    irritation causes increased motility (bowel emptying)
  97. cholinergics, serotonergic
    GI stimulant categories
  98. degestive enzyme drug
    pancreatic enzyme supplements that are used to treat exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.
  99. Slentrol
    weight loss drug
  100. CET products
    pastes, sprays, chews etc. with various active ingredients and flavors, should not be rinsed out
  101. Nolvadent, Oraldent
    cleansing oral rinses
  102. Hills T/D Diet
    food that helps prevent tartar buildup
  103. Doxirobe
    gel placed in periodontal pockets after dental cleansing that releases an antibiotic for several weeks
  104. nebulization
    process of converting liquid medications into a spray that can be inhaled
  105. reverse sneeze
    short periods of noisy respiratory effort in drops
  106. expectorant
    drug that decreases the viscosity of respiratory secretions
  107. mucolytic
    drug that decreases the viscosity of repiratory secretions
  108. Tussigon or Hycodan (hydrocodone)
    used for harsh, non-productive coughs in dogs, controlled substance
  109. Torpex, albuterol
    used to treat airway diseases in horses by relieving brochospasm and bronchoconstriction (equine inhaler) brochodilator drug
  110. methylxanthines
    brochodilators used in repiratory and cardiac conditions, mild heart and respiratory muscle stimulus
  111. aminophylline
    used to treat inflammatory airway diseases in dogs, cats, and horses
  112. doxapram, Dopram-V/Respiran
    used to treat repiratory depression or to stimulate respirations post-anesthesia, found on the crash cart