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cephalocaudal pattern of growth
sequence in which the earliest growth always occur from the TOP downward
when is proportinal fastest growth?
within 1st year, from 5.5 and 15lbs; newborns gain ~1in/mo.during 1st year
proliferation of neuron through cell division (in brain development)
formation of connections (in brain development); 6mos. have 2x more synaptic connections
elmination of excess synapses (in brain development); without it, children wouldn't be able to walk, talk or even see properly
proximodistal pattern of growth
sequence in which growth starts in the CENTER of body and moves towards the extremities
specialization of fucntion in 1 hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other (under patterns of growth)
(patterns of growht) Childrean who grow up in deprived environment experiene ___.
depressed brain activity
hours of sleep for typical newborns
when do newborns move to adult-like sleepig time/pattern?
by 4 months of age
sudden infant death syndrome- infants stop breaking & die without cause; high risk at 2-4 months of age; risk decreased when infant sleeps on its back and when a pacifier is used
a severe protein-calorie deficiency
severe protein deficiency that causes the abdomen and feet to swell with water; causes vital organs to collect nutrients, deprivign other parts of body
infant's cheek is stroked --> infant turn its head to the side that was touched
automatic arching of back and wrapping of arms to center of body when starteld
infant's hands close around anything that touches the palm
gross motor skills
skills that involve large-muscle activities (walking, grabbing for objects)
fine motor skills
involve finely tuned movements; PALMER GRASP=grasping with whole hand
visual preference method
infants look at different things for different lenghts of time (they look at preferred objects longer)
habituation--decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repated presentations
(research method) presenting one stimulus at at time & waiting for habituation to occur
recvovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation (under research methods)
- (object 20ft away appears as if its were 600ft away)
sensory stimulation is changing but perception of the physical world remains constant
recognition that an object remains the same even though the retinal image of the object changes
-babiesas young as 3mos show size constancy; continues to develop until 10-11 years
- recognition that an object remains the same shape even though its orientation to us changes
- -3 mos show shape constancy, but not for irregular shaped objects
___ & ___ studied development of depth perception using a ____.
[[ Gibson & Walk ]] studied development of depth perception using a [[ "visual cliff" ]]
- --infants 6-12 mos = distinguish depth
- --infants 2-4 mos = show heart rate difference when placed on a deep side of cliff
- --infants develop binocular depth cues by about 3-4 months of age
when can fetuses hear &learn sounds ? when can they recognize their mother's voice?
during LAST 2 MONTHS OF PREGNANCY & can recognize their mother's voice AT BIRTH
when do babies establish a PREFERENCE FOR MOTHER'S SMELL?
by 6 days
ability to integrate info from 2 or more sensory modalities
- -babies are born with some inate abilities to perceive relations among senses
- -their abilities imporive considerably through experience
action guides perception, and perception guides action