Hematology S1M2

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Hematology S1M2
2011-04-16 20:10:26

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  1. What are the components of a CBC Complete Blood Count
    • Hb
    • Hct
    • RBC/Indices
    • WBC
    • Platelets
    • Blood Smear Eval.
  2. A Hb count is a good indicator for
    • Oxygen carrying capacity
    • Diagnosis for anemia (prefered over
    • Hct)
  3. What is polycythemia
    Above average RBC count
  4. What is the most important blood test for classifying anemia
    Mean corpuscular volume MCV
  5. Mean corpuscular volume ranges are
    • Microcytic <80
    • Macrocytic >100
    • Normocytic 80-100
  6. Red cell distribution width (RDW) detects for
  7. Leukopenia differs from luekocytosis how
    • Penia is a low white blood count
    • Cytosis is a high count
  8. What is TLC
    Total Luekocyte count
  9. What is a DLC
    Differential leukocyte count, compares different white blood cell numbers
  10. A microcytic RBC has what distinguishing traits
    They have a central palor larger than normal
  11. What is a normalblast cell
    It is a erythrocyte that contains a nucleus and should be located in the bone marrow
  12. Why would you see a normoblast in the blood stream
    It could be a result of massive hemorrhaging or hemolysis
  13. What are the newly released RBC's from the bone marrow, and how are they identified
    Reticulocytes, they have ribosomal filaments in the cytoplasm
  14. Why would the reticulocyte count be important
    To determine if the marrow is effective at erythropoeisis (<3% is normal)
  15. The Reticulocyte count is falsley elevated when
    When there is anemia, the body is trying to compensate
  16. What is the ESR and what is it used for
    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, it is a non-specific indicator of tissue injury, inflammation, and cancer
  17. Hyperchromic is
    An elevated amount of Hb concentration and a loss of central pallor
  18. Polychromasia can be described as
    RBC's with more than one color, presence of RNA, and increase amount of reticulocytes
  19. What is poikilocytosis
    A variation in the shape of RBC's
  20. What are the different shapes that can be seen in an abnormal RBC
    • Microspherocyte
    • Sickle cell
    • Tear drop
    • Schistocyte
  21. What are the causes of the abnormal RBC shapes
    • Microspherocyte - hereditary, immune hemolytic anemia
    • Sickle cell - Homozygous sickle cell disease
    • Tear drop - Marrow infiltration (myelofibrosis)
    • Schistocyte - Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia
  22. What could be the cause of hyperchromic RBC's
    • Hereditary spherocytosis
    • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
  23. A sickle cell can also be called
  24. Schistocytes can be caused by
    Hemolytic anemia
  25. A tear drop cell can also be called
  26. What conditions can cause a target cell to have its appearance
    • Thalassemia
    • Iron deficiency anemia
    • Alcoholic liver disease
  27. What is a punctate basophilia and what could cause it
    Altered reticulocyte with basophilic spotting that has the desire to aggregate with one another, it is caused by Lead poisoning mostly, drug exposure, alcoholism
  28. What is the appearance of a Howell Jolly body, and what is it caused by
    • It has a purple dot like an eye ball
    • These can occur when there is absence of a spleen, or a non functioning spleen.
  29. What is the appearence of a Heinz body, and what can cause it
    • It has particle of denatured hemoglobin just on the inside of the membrane
    • Caused by G6PD deficiency (Oxidation injury)
  30. Siderocytes are
    RBC's with a couple iron granules, are caused by an iron overload.
  31. What are the three broad groups that you can classify anemia into (Etiologicaly)
    • Increased Blood loss
    • Impaired RBC production
    • Increased RBC destruction
  32. What are some of the causes of RBC loss
    • Trauma
    • Lesions in the GI tract
    • Urinary tract loss
    • Gynecological effects
  33. Why in chronic disease do you sometimes see anemia
    The iron is not transferred form the ferritin in attempt to hide it from bacteria
  34. What is metastatic neoplasm
    When a disease has spread to other organs via metastasis
  35. Parvovirus B19 infection does what
    Infects and destroys red blood cell progenitors
  36. What are the primary tests used to classify anemia
    • Mean corpuscular volume
    • Reticulocyte count
  37. Microcytic anemia is caused by what different conditions
    • Iron deficiency
    • Thalassemia
    • Sideroblastic anemia (lead poisoning)
    • Anemia of chronic disease
  38. What are some of the causes of macrocytic anemia
    • Folate/B12 deficiency
    • Alcoholism
    • Drugs
    • Myelodysplastic syndrome (ineffective myeloid production)
  39. What are the classic symptoms and signs of a patient with anemia
    • Fatigue
    • Breathlessness
    • Tachycardia
    • Systolic murmur
    • Paleness
  40. What is the difference between hemolytic anemia and non-hemolytic anemia
    Hemolytic has a reticulocyte count above 3%
  41. If a patient has an onset of anemia due to an iron deficiency what are some symptoms specifically caused by this
    • Spooned shaped nails (Koilonychia)
    • Fissures at the angle of the mouth (Cheilosis)
  42. B12 deficiency often manifests itself physically through
    • Tingling and numbness in hands and feet
    • Unsteady Gait
    • Impaired senses
  43. Hemolytic anemia is physically manifest often as
    • Jaundice
    • Hepatosplenomegaly
  44. What would be the lab results in a megaloblastic anemia
    • Low Hb
    • Excessive macrocytes
    • Normal/Decreased Reticulocyte count
    • Hypersegmented neutrophils
  45. Fanconi anemia
    Inherited disease with stem cell depletion decreasing the bone marrow function
  46. Granulomatous neoplasm
    Mass of immune cells dealing with metastatic neoplasm
  47. Pernicious anemia exhibits what lab findings and cell type
    There will be a larger MCV, megaloblastic cells, and hyper segmentation of Neutrophils
  48. What are some causes of Leukocytosis
    • Chronic infections
    • Myeloproliferative disorders
    • Chronic Inflammation
  49. What effect do glucocorticoids have on the presence of Leukocytes in the blood
    They turn down inflammation keeping them in the blood instead of the tissues
  50. What are catecholamines and what are their effects on Leukocytes in the blood
    They are the fight or flight hormones and along with exercise cause and increase in the blood
  51. How can septic shock and hypoxia effect the leukocyte count in the blood
    It will increase them
  52. A large increase in a bacteria infection will effect what cells in the blood stream
  53. How do corticosteroids effect neutrophils in the blood
    They cause inflammation to go down, therefore the neutrophils won't be as apt to entering the tissue or leaving the bone marrow.
  54. What are Dohle bodies in neutrophils
    These are dull gray patches of dilated Rough ER
  55. Toxic granules, Dohle bodies, and Cytoplasmic vacuoles in neutrophils can be and indication of what
    Sepsis or severe inflammation disorders
  56. What conditions would cause an increase in the amount of Eosinophils in the blood stream
    • Allergic reactions
    • Parasitic infections
  57. A raise in the amount of basophils in the blood is rare but could indicate
    Chronic myeloid leukemia (increase in the growth of myeloid cells)
  58. Monocytosis is a marker for chronic inflammation and infections and can be caused by what specific conditions
    • Bacterial endocarditis
    • UC
    • Lupus
    • Tuberculosis
  59. What are some of the classic causes of Lymphocytosis
    • Mono
    • Mumps
    • Measles
    • TB
    • Whooping cough
    • Graves disease
  60. What are some clinical findings in Mono
    Classic triad, Fever, sore throat, Gray and white membrane on tonsils
  61. Why is a lymphocytosis condition called mononucleosis
    Because in a blood smear the lymphocytes look similar to monocytes
  62. What effects does Infectious Mononucleosis (IM) have on the lymph nodes
    It increases the size of the paracortex due to the large T cell proliferation
  63. Why must patients with Mono avoid contact sports till they are better
    They could rupture their enlarged spleen killing them
  64. What is para-cortical hyperplasia
    It is the abnormal T cell proliferation specifically in the paracortex of the lymph nodes
  65. What can cause para-cortical hyperplasia
    • Skin infections
    • Mono
  66. What are the clinical signs for Neutropenia
    • Malaise
    • Chills
    • Fever
    • Fatigue
    • Large lymph nodes
  67. What are clinical signs for Agranulocytosis
    • Mouth ulcers with psuedo membranes laden with infective bacteria or fungi
    • Death with in a few days
  68. Pancytopenia means
    There is a decrease in the amount of RBC, WBC and platelets found in the blood because they are being inappropriately phagocytosed
  69. What does a serum homocystein test screen for
    Folic acid and B12
  70. What is a leukemoid reaction
    High leukocyte count with immature myeloid granulocytes
  71. What could cause a leukemoid reaction
    • Severe infections- Sepsis
    • Appendicitis
    • Whooping cough
    • Mononucleosis
    • Severe hemorrhaging