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moses1424
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68545
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test friday
Updated:
2011-02-23 22:16:52
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hemotology
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  1. Erythropoietin (hormone)
    • Produced in the kidneys.
    • Stimulates Production or RBCs
  2. Blood cell formation begins when?
    2 Weeks after conception.
  3. Blood cell formation begins where?
    Mesenchymal Cells (blood islands in the yolk sac)
  4. 3 Phases of blood cell production
    • Mesoblastic
    • Hapatic
    • Medullary
  5. 3 Layers of cells that develope in the blastocyst stage of the zygote.
    • Mesodermal
    • Peripheral
    • Central Cells
  6. Mesoblastic Stage
    Undifferentiated stem cells differentiate into primitive erythroblasts.
  7. Mesodermal Cells
    Gives rise to blood islands.
  8. Peripheral Cells
    Flatten to become blood vessels.
  9. Central Cells
    Detach and enter primitive plasma to become undifferentiated stem cells.
  10. Hepatic stage begins when?
    • Primitive Erythroblasts migrate to liver.
    • Peaks during 3rd month.
    • Primitive cells disappear by 4th month.
  11. RBC production continues in liver until when?
    8th month.
  12. Medullary Stage
    At 6th month red bone marrow is primary site of hematopoiesis.
  13. Newborn's and children's bone marrow is?
    All red
  14. By Adulthood red bone marrow is?
    Only in the axial skeleton.
  15. Loss of RBCs decreases?
    O2 Level
  16. P O2 receptors in the brain stem stimulates.
    Kidneys to release erythropoietin.
  17. CFU-S
    Pluripotential Stem Cell (uncomitted)
  18. Erythropoiesis Maturation Stages
    • Rubriblast
    • Prorubricyte
    • Rubricyte
    • Metarubricyte.
    • Reticulocyte (nucleated red)
    • Erythrocyte
  19. RBC Formation Time Tables
    • Bone Marrow 3 days
    • Spleen 1-3 Days (reticulocytes)
    • Circulation 120 days (erythrocytes)
  20. Anemia
    RBC Values below normal.
  21. Polycythemia
    RBC Values above normal.
  22. Anisocytosis
    Size
  23. Anisochromia
    Color
  24. Poikilocytosis
    Shape
  25. MCV
    Mean Cell Volume (Cell Size)
  26. MCH
    Mean Cell Hemoglobin ( Cell Color )
  27. MCHC
    Ratio of HGB to cell size (color)
  28. RDW
    • Red Cell Distribution Width
    • Cell size variation
  29. Normal RBC size
    • 6-8 microns
    • 80-100fl
    • About the size of the nucleus of a small lymph.
  30. Microcytes
    • Less than 6 microns
    • Less than 80fl
  31. Microcytic Anemia Causes
    • Iron deficiency Anemia
    • Thalessemia
    • Chronic Blood Loss
  32. Macrocytes
    • Greater than 8 microns
    • Greater than 100fl
  33. Grading Anisocytosis
    • WNL = 0-5 / 10 oil
    • 1+ = 6-15 / 10oil
    • 2+ = 15-30 / 10oil
    • 3+ = > 30 / 10 oil
  34. Anisochromia
    Variation in RBC color
  35. Hypochromia Causes...
    • Fe Deficiency Anemia
    • Anemia Associated with leukemia
    • Some Hemoglobinopathies (Thalassemias)
  36. Hyperchromia causes...
    • Poikilocytosis (spherocytes, target , helmet)
    • Hereditary Spherocytosis.
    • Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
    • Hemoglobinopathies (sickle cells, target cells)
  37. Target Cells
    • Take on target shape when slide dries.
    • Too much cell membrane for the HGB.
    • Associated with ABN.
    • HGB and chronic liver cells.
  38. Helmet Cells
    • Shistocyte precursor.
    • Fracture of cells metabolic injury or toxicity.
  39. Sperocytes
    Ascociated with hemolytic anemia and heretitary spreocytosis.
  40. Anisochromia grading
    • WNL 0-2 / 10 oil
    • 1+ 2-3 / 10 oil
    • 2+ 3-4 / 10 oil
    • 3+ >4 / 10 oil
  41. Tear Drop cell
    • Dacrocyte
    • Results from "squeezing" through spleen
    • Anemias
  42. Ovalocytes/ Eliptocytes
    • Oval Egg Shaped
    • Eliptical
    • Assoc with hereditary elliptocytosis.
  43. Stomatocyte
    • Fishmouth cell
    • Chronic Liver Disease
  44. Aconthocyte
    • Cell deformed with irregular spiny projection.
    • Connot revert to normal cell.
    • Denotes serious pathological condition.
  45. Echinocytes or Burr Cells
    • Regular distribution of spiny projections.
    • Can revert back to normal cell
    • Crenated: Artifact from slide drying too fast.
  46. Keratocyte
    • Deformed Cell appears half moon or spindle shaped.
    • Appears to have 2 or more spicules.
  47. Shiztocyte
    • Irregularly Shaped RBC fragment with jagged pointed projections.
    • Due to mechanical trauma or RBC defect
  48. Rouleaux
    • RBC stacks or rolls
    • May be an Artifact from not preparing slide soon enough after placing blood on slide.
    • May be due to high concentration abnormal proteins or fibrinogen.
    • Associated with multiple myelomas and macroglobulinemias.
  49. Poikilocytosis Grading (sickle, sperocytes, acanthocytes, rouleaux)
    • WNL Never Normal
    • 1+ 1-5 / 10 oil
    • 2+ 6-15 / 10 oil
    • 3+ >15 / 10 oil
  50. Poikilocytosis Grading (lesser Shapes)
    • WNL 0-1 Normal
    • 1+ 2-5 / 10 oil
    • 2+ 6-15 / 10 oil
    • 3+ >15 / 10 oil
  51. Basophilic Stippling
    • Fine dark blue Granules
    • Only Found in smear not circulation
    • PPT Ribosomes & RNA
  52. Howell Jolly Bodies
    • Round densly staining purple granules.
    • Ussually 1-2 seen off center.
    • Remnant of Nucleus DNA
    • Post Splenectomy and Hemolytic Anemias
  53. Pappenheimer Bodies
    • 1-2 Small Dense Blue Purple Granulesat periphery of cell.
    • IRON Deposits
    • Sideroblastic Anemias & Post Splenectomy
  54. Cabot rings
    • Lead Poisoning
    • twisted or figure 8 shape
  55. Leukopoeitin
    Stimulates production of

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