Card Set Information
Produced in the kidneys.
Stimulates Production or RBCs
Blood cell formation begins when?
2 Weeks after conception.
Blood cell formation begins where?
Mesenchymal Cells (blood islands in the yolk sac)
3 Phases of blood cell production
3 Layers of cells that develope in the blastocyst stage of the zygote.
Undifferentiated stem cells differentiate into primitive erythroblasts.
Gives rise to blood islands.
Flatten to become blood vessels.
Detach and enter primitive plasma to become undifferentiated stem cells.
Hepatic stage begins when?
Primitive Erythroblasts migrate to liver.
Peaks during 3rd month.
Primitive cells disappear by 4th month.
RBC production continues in liver until when?
At 6th month red bone marrow is primary site of hematopoiesis.
Newborn's and children's bone marrow is?
By Adulthood red bone marrow is?
Only in the axial skeleton.
Loss of RBCs decreases?
receptors in the brain stem stimulates.
Kidneys to release erythropoietin.
Pluripotential Stem Cell (uncomitted)
Erythropoiesis Maturation Stages
Reticulocyte (nucleated red)
RBC Formation Time Tables
Bone Marrow 3 days
Spleen 1-3 Days (reticulocytes)
Circulation 120 days (erythrocytes)
RBC Values below normal.
RBC Values above normal.
Mean Cell Volume (Cell Size)
Mean Cell Hemoglobin ( Cell Color )
Ratio of HGB to cell size (color)
Red Cell Distribution Width
Cell size variation
Normal RBC size
About the size of the nucleus of a small lymph.
Less than 6 microns
Less than 80fl
Microcytic Anemia Causes
Iron deficiency Anemia
Chronic Blood Loss
Greater than 8 microns
Greater than 100fl
WNL = 0-5 / 10 oil
1+ = 6-15 / 10oil
2+ = 15-30 / 10oil
3+ = > 30 / 10 oil
Variation in RBC color
Fe Deficiency Anemia
Anemia Associated with leukemia
Some Hemoglobinopathies (Thalassemias)
Poikilocytosis (spherocytes, target , helmet)
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
Hemoglobinopathies (sickle cells, target cells)
Take on target shape when slide dries.
Too much cell membrane for the HGB.
Associated with ABN.
HGB and chronic liver cells.
Fracture of cells metabolic injury or toxicity.
Ascociated with hemolytic anemia and heretitary spreocytosis.
WNL 0-2 / 10 oil
1+ 2-3 / 10 oil
2+ 3-4 / 10 oil
3+ >4 / 10 oil
Tear Drop cell
Results from "squeezing" through spleen
Oval Egg Shaped
Assoc with hereditary elliptocytosis.
Chronic Liver Disease
Cell deformed with irregular spiny projection.
Connot revert to normal cell.
Denotes serious pathological condition.
Echinocytes or Burr Cells
Regular distribution of spiny projections.
Can revert back to normal cell
: Artifact from slide drying too fast.
Deformed Cell appears half moon or spindle shaped.
Appears to have 2 or more spicules.
Irregularly Shaped RBC fragment with jagged pointed projections.
Due to mechanical trauma or RBC defect
RBC stacks or rolls
May be an Artifact from not preparing slide soon enough after placing blood on slide.
May be due to high concentration abnormal proteins or fibrinogen.
Associated with multiple myelomas and macroglobulinemias.
Poikilocytosis Grading (sickle, sperocytes, acanthocytes, rouleaux)
WNL Never Normal
1+ 1-5 / 10 oil
2+ 6-15 / 10 oil
3+ >15 / 10 oil
Poikilocytosis Grading (lesser Shapes)
WNL 0-1 Normal
1+ 2-5 / 10 oil
2+ 6-15 / 10 oil
3+ >15 / 10 oil
Fine dark blue Granules
Only Found in smear not circulation
PPT Ribosomes & RNA
Howell Jolly Bodies
Round densly staining purple granules.
Ussually 1-2 seen off center.
Remnant of Nucleus DNA
Post Splenectomy and Hemolytic Anemias
1-2 Small Dense Blue Purple Granulesat periphery of cell.
Sideroblastic Anemias & Post Splenectomy
twisted or figure 8 shape
Stimulates production of