fundamentals 1st test.txt

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fundamentals 1st test.txt
2011-02-23 22:27:30
fundamentals test

test 1
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  1. which ancient civilization is attributed to have the first public health or home care?
    • ancient Hebrews
    • attributed for?
  2. patients
    • recipient of a health care service
    • term?
  3. what were Egyptian physicans known for?
    • skillful at treating factures
    • who are known for this?
  4. who is called "father of medicine"?
    • Hippocrates born in 460 BC
    • he is called?
  5. who is credited with the first ethical guide for medical conduct, the Hippocratic Oath which is still taken by physicians today?
    • Hippocrates
    • credited with?
  6. holistic
    • pertaining to the whole' takng into consideration all factors
    • term?
  7. Pheobe
    • deaconesses from early christians who took on the duties of what we call today visiting nurse
    • who is this?
  8. who provided the first free hospital in Rome in 390AD?
    • Fabiola, Roman woman
    • provided what?
  9. who was the first nursing theorist?
    • Florence Nightingale.
    • what was she known for?
  10. with whose guidance and where was the first school of nursing established?
    • Theodor Fliedner, German Pastor and in Kaiserswerth, Germany
    • what is significant about this?
  11. in 1853 what position did Nightingale take?
    superintendent of charity hospital for ill governesses
  12. Lady with the Lamp is who?
    • Florence Nightingale
    • is known as?
  13. where and when did Florence Nightingale establish a nursing school?
    • in 1860 at Saint Thomas Hospital in London
    • what happened there?
  14. Dorothea Dix
    • pioneer crusader for elevation of standards of care for the mentally ill. superintendent of Female Nurses of the Union Army
    • who is it?
  15. Clara Barton
    • Developed the American Red Cross in 1881
    • who?
  16. May Ann Ball
    • one of the greatest nurse heroines of the civil war. championed the rights and comforts of the soldiers
    • who?
  17. Linda Richards
    • first trained nursin in America. responsible for dev. of 1st nursing and hospital records. credited with development of documentation system of today
    • who?
  18. Isabel Hampotn Robb
    organized first graded system of theory and practice nursing in the schools of nursing. one of the founders of the American Journal of Nursing
  19. Lavinia Dock
    • responsible with Robb, for organizating of American Society of SUperintendents of training schools which is now National League of Nursing Education
    • Who?
  20. Mary Eliza Mahoney
    • 1st african american professional nurse
    • who?
  21. Lillian D. Wald
    • responsible for development of public health nursing in the United States
    • who?
  22. Mary Adelaide Nutting
    • leader in nursing education. dev. curriculum concepts and guidelines for student nurses
    • who?
  23. Mary Brechenridge
    • pioneer in nurse-midwifery. established frontier nursing service to deliver obstetric care to mothers in the hills
    • who?
  24. when and where were the first laws of governing nursing licensure passed?
    • 1903, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, and Virginia
    • what happened then?
  25. licensure
    • granting of permission by a competent authority (usually a government agency) to an organization or individual to engage in a practice or activity that would otherwse be illegal
    • term?
  26. when was the first time men, with women, were offered education and a career in nursing?
    WWII; when federally subsidezed programs in nursing were developed and implemented
  27. ANA
    • American Nurses Association
    • abbrev?
  28. certification
    • process by which the nurse is granted recognition for competency in a specfic area of nursing
    • term?
  29. most schools of nursing award what to the graduate nurse?
    nursign pin which hs Nightingale lamp on it
  30. where and when was the first school for training practical nurses started?
    • 1892, Brooklyn, New York named Ballard School
    • relation to each other?
  31. Association of Practical Nurse schools
    • founded in 1941 and dedicated exclusively to practical nursing
    • what was?
  32. NAPNES
    • national association for Practical Nurse Education and Service
    • abbrev?
  33. NFLPN
    • national federation of Licensed Practical Nurses
    • abbrev?
  34. National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses
    • founded in 1949 by Lillian Kuster
    • what was?
    • certification Examination for Prctical and Vocational Nurses in Long-term care
    • abbrev?
  36. certification Examination for Practical and Vocational Nurses in Long-term Care
    • additional credential offered by NAPNES for Long term care nurse
    • what is?
  37. NCLEX-PN
    • National council Licensing Examination for Practical Nursing
    • Abbrev?
  38. licensing for practical nurses in the US began in?
    • 1914
    • what began then?
  39. wellness-illness continuum
    • range of person's total health
    • term?
  40. wellness
    • dynamic state of health in which an individual progresses toward a higher level of functioning, achieving an optimal health
    • term?
  41. holistic health care
    system of comprehensive or total patient care that considers te physical, emotional, social, economic, and spiritual needs of a person
  42. who developed the most comon medel of the wellness-illness continuum?
    • developed in 1940's by Abraham Maslow
    • developed what?
  43. technologist
    • refers to those who have a baccalaureate degree in technology
    • term?
  44. technician
    • those who have an associate degree or less in technology
    • term
  45. clinical pathways
    • map out expectations of the hospitalization according to a designated time frame
    • term?
  46. cross-training
    • method of using staff resources to their fullest
    • term?
  47. the primary goal of a health care team is?
    • goal is optimal phsycial, mental, and social well-being of the patient
    • whose goal?
  48. what are the four major concepts that are the basis for all nursing models of care?
    1. nursing 2. patient the individual recieving the care 3. health 4. enviornment for the nurse-patient interaction
  49. what is the nurses function?
    function: assist individuals, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health, to their recovery, or to a peaceful death, and have them become indipendent as soon as possible
  50. Centenarians
    Older than 100 years of age
  51. Chronologic age
    Age of an individual expressed as the time that has elapsed since birth
  52. What are the reasons why health care delivery system relevant to the older population is becoming more complex?
    Scientific advances often combine to delay life threatening condition of the past. Life expectancy has substantially increased. Place more focus today on ethical and legal issues related to life, disease, research, and dying
  53. Wellness is?
    • based on a belief that Each person has an optimal level of function, and that even in chronic illness and dying some level of well-being is attainable.
    • Term?
  54. Wellness involves?
    achieving a balance between individual�s emotional, spiritual, social, cultural, and physical state
  55. What are the traits of a healthy person?
    Self-responsibility. Nutritional awareness, physical fitness, stress management, and environmental sensitivity
  56. What are alternative health strategies?
    Meditation, visualization, massage, magnets, aromas, and acupressure or acupuncture
  57. Holistic definition to health?
    • Does not limit health to its physical and mental aspects, but rather views health as a state of being, an attitude
    • Term?
  58. Ageism
    • Term that describes a profound prejudice in American society against older adults
    • Term?
  59. Mental health continuum
    • Mental health and mental illness occupying opposite ends of it
    • Term?
  60. On what side of the mental health continuum are each of us rarely in touch with reality?
  61. The midpoint on the continuum represents?
    Normal mental health
  62. Mental illness results from?
    An inability to cope with a situation that we find overwhelming.
  63. Maladaptive behavior is often part of?
    A response to acute anxiety
  64. Personality
    Refers to the relatively consistent set of attitudes and behaviors particular to an individual.
  65. Personality development comes under?
    • Influence of genetics and interactions with the environment
    • What comes from this?
  66. According to eriksons how is it possible to predict a certain set of behaviors?
    • If a person does not master a given task then it is possible to predict a certain set of behaviors
    • According to who?
  67. What are the three parts of personality development described by Freud?
    Id, ego, and superego
  68. Id functions on?
    • Primitive level and aims primarily at experiencing pleasure and avoiding pain.
    • What does?
  69. Ego functions to?
    Integrate and mediate between the self and the rest of the environment.
  70. Among the three parts of personality development according to Freud, which experiences anxiety?
    • Out of the three ego experiences it
    • What?
  71. Superego
    Moralistic censoring force. Develops from ego in response to reward or punishment from others
  72. When does an invidvidual experience emotional stability according to Freud?
    When all three substructures, id, ego, superego, function in harmony
  73. Freud delineated levels of awareness:
    Conscious, preconscious, and unconscious
  74. Conscious level
    Experiences are within our awareness; we are aware of and able to control thoughts
  75. Preconsciousness
    Refers to thoughts, feelings, drives, and ideas that are outside our awareness but that we easily recall to consciousness
  76. What state of awareness, according to Freud, helps screen certain thoughts and repress unpleasant thoughts and desires
    • Preconsciousness helps us to do this
    • What does? According to who?
  77. Unconscious level
    • Hold memories, feelings, and thoughts that are not available to the conscious mind
    • Term?
  78. Which level of awareness is most significant level because of the effect it has on behavior?
    • Unconscious level is most significant
    • For what?
  79. Self
    Complex concept comprising four distinct parts that influence behavior
  80. What are the four areas of self?
    Personal identity, body image, role, and self esteem
  81. Self-concept
    • More than total of four parts of self. Frame of reference we use for all we known and experience. Includes all perceptions and values each of us holds and our behaviors and interactions
    • Term?
  82. Stress
    • Nonspecific response of the body to any demand mde on it
    • Term?
  83. Stressor
    Situation, activity, or even that produces stress. Are physical, social, economic, chemical, spiritual, or developmental, or some combination of all of these
  84. Stress in itself is neighed good nor bad; however, it has both positive and negative effects. T or F
  85. Person�s response to a stressful situation or even is often a result of?
    Learned or conditioned behavior, and thus is, at lease in theory, amenable to change
  86. Anxiety
    Possible to define as a vague feeling of apprehension that results from perceived threat to the self
  87. Anxiety is an ___________ we experience when there is a real or perceived threat to our physical body or self-concept.
    • It is an internal process we experience
    • What is?
  88. The degree of anxiety we experience is influenced by?
    How we view stressor, number of stressors we are handling at one time, previous experience with similar situations, magnitude of change the event represents for us
  89. The levels of anxiety are?
    Mild, moderate, severe, panic
  90. Motiviation is?
    • Gathering of personal resources or inner drive to complete a task or reach a goal
    • Term?
  91. Frustration refers to?
    • Anything that interferes with goal directed activity
    • Term?
  92. Adaptation
    • Our ability to adjust to changing life situations by using carious strategies
    • Term?
  93. Coping responses
    • Responses we use to reduce anxiety brought on by stress
    • Term?
  94. Defense mechanisms
    • Behavioral patterns that are protect us against a real or perceived threat; we use them to block conscious awareness of threatening feelings
    • Term?
  95. Maladaptive
    • Use defense mechanisms inappropriately or overuse them to cope, in mental health terms
    • Term?
  96. According to Erikson's stages of Psychosocial development, what are the last three groups?
    Young adulthood (20-44), middle adult (45-65) and late adulthood (65+)
  97. What is the major goal of the health care system?
    Achieve optimal levels of health care for a defined population
  98. What are the four basic needs according to Maslow's hierarchy needs?
    Physiologic (nutrition, air, elimination, water), safety, security and belongingness
  99. What the LVN does on the job is based on?
    It is based on the scope of practice outlined in a given state's nurse practice act
  100. according to erikson agest 20-44 is what stage? what developmental task is the person at?
    • at young adulthood stge and intimacy vs isolation
    • what age? according to who?
  101. according to Erikson's stages of psychosocial developent middle adulthood stage ranges in what age group? what is their developmental task?
    • 45-65; generativity vs stagnation
    • what is the stage name?
  102. people that are 65 and up are in what stage and developmental task according to Erikson?
    • late adulthood; ego integrity vs despair
    • what age group?