which ancient civilization is attributed to have the first public health or home care?
recipient of a health care service
what were Egyptian physicans known for?
skillful at treating factures
who are known for this?
who is called "father of medicine"?
Hippocrates born in 460 BC
he is called?
who is credited with the first ethical guide for medical conduct, the Hippocratic Oath which is still taken by physicians today?
pertaining to the whole' takng into consideration all factors
deaconesses from early christians who took on the duties of what we call today visiting nurse
who is this?
who provided the first free hospital in Rome in 390AD?
Fabiola, Roman woman
who was the first nursing theorist?
what was she known for?
with whose guidance and where was the first school of nursing established?
Theodor Fliedner, German Pastor and in Kaiserswerth, Germany
what is significant about this?
in 1853 what position did Nightingale take?
superintendent of charity hospital for ill governesses
Lady with the Lamp is who?
is known as?
where and when did Florence Nightingale establish a nursing school?
in 1860 at Saint Thomas Hospital in London
what happened there?
pioneer crusader for elevation of standards of care for the mentally ill. superintendent of Female Nurses of the Union Army
who is it?
Developed the American Red Cross in 1881
May Ann Ball
one of the greatest nurse heroines of the civil war. championed the rights and comforts of the soldiers
first trained nursin in America. responsible for dev. of 1st nursing and hospital records. credited with development of documentation system of today
Isabel Hampotn Robb
organized first graded system of theory and practice nursing in the schools of nursing. one of the founders of the American Journal of Nursing
responsible with Robb, for organizating of American Society of SUperintendents of training schools which is now National League of Nursing Education
Mary Eliza Mahoney
1st african american professional nurse
Lillian D. Wald
responsible for development of public health nursing in the United States
Mary Adelaide Nutting
leader in nursing education. dev. curriculum concepts and guidelines for student nurses
pioneer in nurse-midwifery. established frontier nursing service to deliver obstetric care to mothers in the hills
when and where were the first laws of governing nursing licensure passed?
1903, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, and Virginia
what happened then?
granting of permission by a competent authority (usually a government agency) to an organization or individual to engage in a practice or activity that would otherwse be illegal
when was the first time men, with women, were offered education and a career in nursing?
WWII; when federally subsidezed programs in nursing were developed and implemented
American Nurses Association
process by which the nurse is granted recognition for competency in a specfic area of nursing
most schools of nursing award what to the graduate nurse?
nursign pin which hs Nightingale lamp on it
where and when was the first school for training practical nurses started?
1892, Brooklyn, New York named Ballard School
relation to each other?
Association of Practical Nurse schools
founded in 1941 and dedicated exclusively to practical nursing
national association for Practical Nurse Education and Service
national federation of Licensed Practical Nurses
National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses
founded in 1949 by Lillian Kuster
certification Examination for Prctical and Vocational Nurses in Long-term care
certification Examination for Practical and Vocational Nurses in Long-term Care
additional credential offered by NAPNES for Long term care nurse
National council Licensing Examination for Practical Nursing
licensing for practical nurses in the US began in?
what began then?
range of person's total health
dynamic state of health in which an individual progresses toward a higher level of functioning, achieving an optimal health
holistic health care
system of comprehensive or total patient care that considers te physical, emotional, social, economic, and spiritual needs of a person
who developed the most comon medel of the wellness-illness continuum?
developed in 1940's by Abraham Maslow
refers to those who have a baccalaureate degree in technology
those who have an associate degree or less in technology
map out expectations of the hospitalization according to a designated time frame
method of using staff resources to their fullest
the primary goal of a health care team is?
goal is optimal phsycial, mental, and social well-being of the patient
what are the four major concepts that are the basis for all nursing models of care?
1. nursing 2. patient the individual recieving the care 3. health 4. enviornment for the nurse-patient interaction
what is the nurses function?
function: assist individuals, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health, to their recovery, or to a peaceful death, and have them become indipendent as soon as possible
Older than 100 years of age
Age of an individual expressed as the time that has elapsed since birth
What are the reasons why health care delivery system relevant to the older population is becoming more complex?
Scientific advances often combine to delay life threatening condition of the past. Life expectancy has substantially increased. Place more focus today on ethical and legal issues related to life, disease, research, and dying
based on a belief that Each person has an optimal level of function, and that even in chronic illness and dying some level of well-being is attainable.
achieving a balance between individual�s emotional, spiritual, social, cultural, and physical state
What are the traits of a healthy person?
Self-responsibility. Nutritional awareness, physical fitness, stress management, and environmental sensitivity
What are alternative health strategies?
Meditation, visualization, massage, magnets, aromas, and acupressure or acupuncture
Holistic definition to health?
Does not limit health to its physical and mental aspects, but rather views health as a state of being, an attitude
Term that describes a profound prejudice in American society against older adults
Mental health continuum
Mental health and mental illness occupying opposite ends of it
On what side of the mental health continuum are each of us rarely in touch with reality?
The midpoint on the continuum represents?
Normal mental health
Mental illness results from?
An inability to cope with a situation that we find overwhelming.
Maladaptive behavior is often part of?
A response to acute anxiety
Refers to the relatively consistent set of attitudes and behaviors particular to an individual.
Personality development comes under?
Influence of genetics and interactions with the environment
What comes from this?
According to eriksons how is it possible to predict a certain set of behaviors?
If a person does not master a given task then it is possible to predict a certain set of behaviors
According to who?
What are the three parts of personality development described by Freud?
Id, ego, and superego
Id functions on?
Primitive level and aims primarily at experiencing pleasure and avoiding pain.
Ego functions to?
Integrate and mediate between the self and the rest of the environment.
Among the three parts of personality development according to Freud, which experiences anxiety?
Out of the three ego experiences it
Moralistic censoring force. Develops from ego in response to reward or punishment from others
When does an invidvidual experience emotional stability according to Freud?
When all three substructures, id, ego, superego, function in harmony
Freud delineated levels of awareness:
Conscious, preconscious, and unconscious
Experiences are within our awareness; we are aware of and able to control thoughts
Refers to thoughts, feelings, drives, and ideas that are outside our awareness but that we easily recall to consciousness
What state of awareness, according to Freud, helps screen certain thoughts and repress unpleasant thoughts and desires
Preconsciousness helps us to do this
What does? According to who?
Hold memories, feelings, and thoughts that are not available to the conscious mind
Which level of awareness is most significant level because of the effect it has on behavior?
Unconscious level is most significant
Complex concept comprising four distinct parts that influence behavior
What are the four areas of self?
Personal identity, body image, role, and self esteem
More than total of four parts of self. Frame of reference we use for all we known and experience. Includes all perceptions and values each of us holds and our behaviors and interactions
Nonspecific response of the body to any demand mde on it
Situation, activity, or even that produces stress. Are physical, social, economic, chemical, spiritual, or developmental, or some combination of all of these
Stress in itself is neighed good nor bad; however, it has both positive and negative effects. T or F
Person�s response to a stressful situation or even is often a result of?
Learned or conditioned behavior, and thus is, at lease in theory, amenable to change
Possible to define as a vague feeling of apprehension that results from perceived threat to the self
Anxiety is an ___________ we experience when there is a real or perceived threat to our physical body or self-concept.
It is an internal process we experience
The degree of anxiety we experience is influenced by?
How we view stressor, number of stressors we are handling at one time, previous experience with similar situations, magnitude of change the event represents for us
The levels of anxiety are?
Mild, moderate, severe, panic
Gathering of personal resources or inner drive to complete a task or reach a goal
Frustration refers to?
Anything that interferes with goal directed activity
Our ability to adjust to changing life situations by using carious strategies
Responses we use to reduce anxiety brought on by stress
Behavioral patterns that are protect us against a real or perceived threat; we use them to block conscious awareness of threatening feelings
Use defense mechanisms inappropriately or overuse them to cope, in mental health terms
According to Erikson's stages of Psychosocial development, what are the last three groups?
Young adulthood (20-44), middle adult (45-65) and late adulthood (65+)
What is the major goal of the health care system?
Achieve optimal levels of health care for a defined population
What are the four basic needs according to Maslow's hierarchy needs?
Physiologic (nutrition, air, elimination, water), safety, security and belongingness
What the LVN does on the job is based on?
It is based on the scope of practice outlined in a given state's nurse practice act
according to erikson agest 20-44 is what stage? what developmental task is the person at?
at young adulthood stge and intimacy vs isolation
what age? according to who?
according to Erikson's stages of psychosocial developent middle adulthood stage ranges in what age group? what is their developmental task?
45-65; generativity vs stagnation
what is the stage name?
people that are 65 and up are in what stage and developmental task according to Erikson?