psych chapter 5

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traceytram
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68551
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psych chapter 5
Updated:
2011-02-24 18:11:19
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psychology
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test 2
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  1. schemes & its 2 types
    actions or mental representations that organize knowledge

    • 2 types:
    • -behavorial schemes = physical activities; characterize infancy
    • -mental schemes = cognitive activities; develop in childhood
  2. behavioral scheme
    physical activities; characterize infancy (simple actions that can be performed on object-> sucking, shaking, looking moving)
  3. mental scheme
    cognitive activities (develop in childhood)- includes strategies and plans for solving problems
  4. assimilation
    when children use their EXISTING schemes to deal with new info/experience (under cognitive processes)
  5. accomodation
    occurs when children ADJUST their schemes to take new info and experiences into account (under cognitive processes)
  6. organization
    the grouping of isolated behaviors & thoughts into a higher-order system
  7. 3 cognitive processes
    assimilation, accommodation, organization
  8. equilibration
    the mechanism by which children shift from 1 STATE OF THOUGHT TO THE NEXT
  9. disequilibrium
    child's inevitable experience of cognitive conflict; brought about by inconsistencies in his/her existing schemes
  10. sensorimotor stage
    infant cognitive development lasting from birth to 2 years; infant understand the world through their sensory experiences
  11. Piaget on cognitive processes
    • According to Piaget,
    • indiv go through 4 stages of development; cognition is QUALITATIVELY different from one state to another
  12. object permanence
    the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched; developed by the END OF SENSORIMOTOR period (piaget); 5 months do not have object permanence, but 8-10 months do
  13. violation of expectations
    suggests that infants understand object permanence earlier than Piaget proposed
  14. habituation
    DECREASED responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations
  15. dishabituation
    INCREASED responsiveness to a stimulus after a change in stimulation
  16. joint attention
    individuals focus on the same object or event; one person directs another's attention
  17. memory
    retention of info over time
  18. encoding
    the process by which information gets into memory
  19. implicit memory
    memory without conscious recollection (skilled & routine procedures that are performed automatically)
  20. explicit memory
    conscious memory of facts and experiences; occurs in infants after 6 months; maturation of hippocampus & surrounding cerebral cortex
  21. infantile or childhood amnesia
    inability to recall memories of events that occurred before 3 years of age
  22. imitation
    one of the most basic forms of social behavior is copying another person
  23. mirror neurons
    found in front & parietal lobes; fire when you engage in activity (ie. reaching out one's hand) or when you observe someone else engaging in the same activity
  24. deferred imitation
    imitation that occurs after a time delay of hours or days
  25. infinite generativity
    ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules
  26. overextension
    tendency to apply a word to objects that are inappropriate for the word's meaning
  27. underextension
    tendency to apply a word too narrowly
  28. telegraphic speech
    use of short and precise words without grammatical markers
  29. broca's area
    language production
  30. wernicke's area
    language comprehension
  31. language acquisition device (LAD)
    theory that a biological endowment enables children to detect certain features & rules of language
  32. interaction view (Tomasello)
    children learn language in specific contexts
  33. child-directed speech
    language spoken in a higher pitch than normal with simple words and sentences (captures infant's attention & maintains communication)
  34. 3 strategies to enhance child's acquisition of language
    • 1) recasting - rephrasing something that the child has said
    • 2) expanding state - repeating what the child has said but in correct structure
    • 3) labeling - identifying the names of objects

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