micro ch. 10

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micro ch. 10
2011-02-23 23:17:29

exam 2
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  1. most of genetic information in a bacterium located
    within single chromosome
  2. plasmids
    • -number of closed loops of DNA
    • -Exist as independent units apart from bacterial chromosome; contain 2% of total genetic info, multiply independently of chromosome
  3. mutation
    permanent change in organism's DNA
  4. Causes of Mutation
    • as a result of identifiable factors known as mutagens,
    • -UV radiation - known mutagen
  5. transposons
    • small segments of DNA that have ability to move from one position to antoher in bacterial chromsome
    • -segments carry no genetic information other than for ability to insert to chromosome
    • -
  6. gene recombination
    transfer of drug resistance taken place
  7. three methods of gene recombination
    conjugation, transduction, and transformation
  8. conjugation
    two live bacterial cells come together, donor cell transfer some genetic material to recipient cell
  9. F factor
    • a plasmid of the donor cell, meaning 'fertility factor'
    • -contains 20 genes, assocated with conjugation, genes encode enzymes that replicate DNA and move from donor to recipient
  10. F pili aka sex pili
    special pili, hairlike fibers that contact recipient bacteria, then retract so surfaces of donor and recipient so close that a bridge forms
  11. transduction.
    gene transfer occurs with assistance of a bacterial virus
  12. bacterial viruses that are in transduction are known as ..
  13. transformation
    • bacterium acquires genes from its surrounding environment
    • -occurs very limited percentage of bacteria in a population
  14. competence factors
    protein molecules that believe to allow DNA fragments to pass thru bacterial cell membrane
  15. endonucleases
    bacterial enzymes, aka restriction enzymes, cuz help bacteria "restrict" bacteriophage replication by destroying page's nucleic acid within bacterial cytoplasm