psychology chapter 12

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psychology chapter 12
2011-02-23 23:42:21
psychology chapter twelve

psychology vocabulary chapter 12
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  1. emotions
    a complex pattern of changes, including physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive processes, and behavioral reactions, made in response to a situation perceived to be personally significant
  2. James-Lange theory of emotion
    a peripheral-feedback theory of emotion stating that an eliciting stimulus triggers a behavioral response that sends different sensory and motor feedback to the brain and creates the feeling of a specific emotion
  3. Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
    a theory stating than an emotional stimulus produces two co-occuring reactions--arousal and experience of emotion--that do not cause each other.
  4. two-factor theory of emotion
    the theory that emotional experiences arise from automatic arousal and cognitive appraisal
  5. cognitive appraisal theory of emotion
    a theory stating that the experience of emotion is the joint effect of psychiological arousal and cognitive appriasal, which serves to determine how an ambigious inner state of arousal will be labeled
  6. subjective well-being
    individuals' overal evaluation of life satisfaction and happiness
  7. positive psychology
    a movement within psychology that applies research to provide people with the knowledge and skills that allow them to experience fulfilling lives
  8. stress
    the pattern of specific and nonspecific responses an organism makes to stimulus events that disturbe its equilibrium and tax or exceed its ability to cope
  9. stressor
    an internal or external event or stimulus that induces stress
  10. acute stress
    a transient state of arousal with typically clear onset and offset patterns
  11. chronic stress
    a continuous state of arousal in which an individual perceives demands as greater than the inner and outer resources available for dealing with them
  12. fight or flight response
    a sequence of internal activities triggered when an organism is faced with a threat; prepares the body for combat and struggle or fo running away to safety; recent evidence suggests that the response is characteristic of only males
  13. tend-and befriend response
    a response to stressors that is hypothesized to be typical for females; stressors prompt females to protect their offspring and join social groupts to reduce vunerability
  14. general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
    the pattern of nonspecific adaptational physiological mechanisms that occurs in response to continuing threat by almost any serious stressor
  15. psychosomatic disorder
    physical disorder aggravated by or primarily attributable to prolonged emotional stress or other psychological causes
  16. life-changing unit (LCU)
    in stress research, the measure of the stress levels of different types of change experienced during a given period
  17. posttraumatic--stress disorder (PTSD)
    an anxiety disorder characterized by the persistant reexperience of traumatic events through distressing recollections, dreams, hallucinations, or dissociative flashbacks; develops in response to rapes, life-threatening events, severe injury, and natural disasters
  18. coping
    the process of dealing with internal or external demands that are perceived to be threatening or overwhelming
  19. stress modulator variable
    variable that changes the impact of a stressor on a given type of stress reaction
  20. anticipatory coping
    efforts made in advance of a potentially stressful event to overcome, reduce or tolerate the imbalance between perceived demands and available resources
  21. perceived control
    the belief that one has the ability to make a difference in the course of the consequences of some event or experience; often helpful in dealing with stressors
  22. social support
    resources, including material aid, socioemotional support and informational aid, provided by others to help a person cope with stress
  23. health psychology
    the field of psychology devoted to understanding the ways people stay healthy, the reasons they become ill, and the ways they response when they become ill
  24. health
    a general condition of soundness and vigor of body and mind; not simply the absence of illness or injury
  25. hozho
    a Navajo concept referring to harmony, peace of mind, goodness, ideal family relationships, beauty in arts and crafts, and health of body and spirit
  26. biopsychosocial model
    a model of health and illness that suggests links among the nervous system, the immune system, behavioral styles, cognitive processing, and environmental domains of health
  27. wellness
    optimal health, incorporating the ability to function fully and actively over the physical, intellectual, emotional, spiritual, social, and environmental domains of health
  28. health promotion
    the development and implementation of general strategies and specific tactics to eliminate or reduce the risk that people will become ill
  29. AIDS
    acronuym for acquired immune deficiency sydrome, a syndrome caused by a virus that damages the immune system and weakens the body's ability to fight infection
  30. HIV
    human immunodeficiency virus, a virus that attacks white blood cells (T lymphocytes) in human blood, thereby weakening the functioning of the immune system; HIV causes AIDS
  31. relaxation response
    a condition in which muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate, and blood pressure decrease and breathing slows
  32. biofeedback
    a self-regulatory technique by which an individual acquires voluntary control over nonconscious biological processes
  33. psychoneuroimmunology
    the research area that investigates interactions between psychological processes, such as responses to stress, and the functions of the immune system
  34. type A behavior pattern
    a complex pattern of behavior and emotions that incudes excessive emphasis on competition, aggression, impatience, and hostility; hostility increase the risk of coronary heart disease
  35. type B behavior pattern
    as compared to type A behavior pattern a less competitive, less aggressive, less hostile pattern of behavior and emotion
  36. job burnout
    the syndrome of emotional exhaustin, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment, often experienced by workers in high-stress jobs