chapter 16 psychology

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chapter 16 psychology
2011-02-24 00:42:04
psychology chapter

social psychology
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  1. social psycholoogy
    the branch of psychology that studies the effect of social variables on individual behavior, attitudes, perceptions, and motives; also studies group and intergroup phenomena
  2. social cognition
    the process by which people select, interpret, and remember social information
  3. social perception
    the process by which a person comes to know or perceived the personal attributes
  4. attribution theory
    a social-cognitive approach to describing the ways the social perceiver used information to generate causal explanation
  5. covariation model
    a theory that suggests tha people attribute a behavior to causal factor if that factor was present whenever the behavior occured but was absent whenever it didnt occur
  6. fundamental attribution error (FAE)
    the dual tendency of observers to underestimate the impact of situational factors and to overestimate the influence of dispositional factors on a person's behavior
  7. self-serving bias
    an attributional bias in which people tend to take credit for their successes and deny responsibility for their failures
  8. self-fufilling prophecy
    a prediction made about some future behavior or event that modifies interactions so as to produce what is expected
  9. social role
    a socially defined pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is functioning in a given setting or group
  10. rule
    behavioral guideline for acting in a certain way in a certain situation
  11. social norm
    the expectation a group has for its members regarding acceptable and appropriate attitudes and behaviors
  12. conformity
    the tendency for people to adopt the behaviors, attitudes, and values of other members of a reference group
  13. information influence
    group effects that arise from individuals' desire to be correct and right to understna dhow best to act in a given situation
  14. normative influence
    group effects that arise from individual's desire to be liked, accepted, and approved by others
  15. norm crystallization
    the convergence of the expectations of a group of individuals into a common perspective as they talk and carry out activities together
  16. group polarization
    the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the decisions that would be made by the members acting alone
  17. groupthink
    the tendency of a decision-making group to filter out undersirable input so that a consensus may be reached, especially if it is in line with the leader's view point
  18. attitude
    the learned, relatively stable tendency to response to people, concepts, and events in an evaluative way
  19. persuasion
    deliberate efforts to change attitudes
  20. elaboration likelihood model
    a theory of persuasion that defines how likely it is that people will focus their cognitive processes to elaborate upon a message and therefore follow the cental and peripheral routes to persuasion
  21. cognitive dissonance
    the theory that the tension-producing effects of incongrous cognitions motivate individuals to reduce such tension
  22. self-perception theory
    the idea that people observed themselves to figure out hte reasons they act as they do; people infer what their internal states are by perceiving how they are acting in a given situation
  23. compliance
    a change in behavior consistent with a communication source's direct requests
  24. reciprocity norm
    expectation that favors will be returned--if someone does something for another person, that person should do something in return
  25. prejudice
    a learned attitude toward a target object, involving negative affect (dislike or fear), negative beliefs (stereotypes) that justify the attitude, and a behavioral intention to avoid control, dominate or eliminate the the target object
  26. social categorization
    the process by which people organized the social environment by categorizing themselves and others into groups
  27. ingroup
    a group with which people identify as members
  28. outgroup
    a group with which people do not identify
  29. ingroup bias
    people's tendency to favor members of their own group over members of other groups
  30. racism
    discrimination against people based on the color of skin or ethnic heritage
  31. sexism
    discrimination against people because of their sex
  32. stereotype
    generalization about a group of people in which the same characteristics are assigned to all members of a group
  33. contact hypothesis
    the prediction that contact between groups will reduce prejudice only if the contact includes features such as cooperation toward shared goals
  34. aggression
    behaviors that cause psychological or physical harm to another individual
  35. prosocial behavior
    behavior that is carried out with the goal of helping other people
  36. altruism
    prosocial behaviors a person carries out wihtout considering his or her own safety or interests
  37. impulsive aggression
    cognition based and goal directed aggression carried out with premeditated thought, to achieve specific aims
  38. instrumental aggression
    cognition-based and goal-directed aggression carried out with premeditated thought, to acheive specific aims
  39. frustration-aggression hypothesis
    according to the hypothesis, frustration occurs in situations in which people are prevented or blocked from attaining their goals; a rise in frustration then leads to a greater probability of aggression
  40. reciprocal altruism
    the idea that people perform altruistic behaviors because they expect that others will perform altruistic behaviors for them in return
  41. bystander intervention
    willingness to assist a person in need of help
  42. diffusion of responsibility
    in emergency situations, the larger the number of bystanders, the less responsibility any one of the bystanders feels to help