Process of denitrification involves transformation of
nitrate to nitrogen gas
play major roles in diseases, form on medical devices such as catheters and dialysis units, and develop to macroscopic objects visible to naked eye
Eutrophication is process of ...
nutrient enrichment of waters
acquired immunity refers to type of specific immunity that
develops after exposure to antigen, result from transfer of antibodies from one individual to another, and induced by natural or arificial means
vaccination is a good example of
artificially acquired active immunity
most antibiotics are produced by
all the following conditions ocntribute to growth of microorganisms in foods:
plentiful organic matter, sufficient water content, neutral/slightly acidic conditions, and favorable salt environment
denitrificaiton is the conversion of..
nitrate to nitrogen gas
ruminants rely on microbes for breakdown of
example of successfull genetically engineered vaccine is one for..
whcih of following not an example of food of microbial origin?
traditionally beer is made by yeast fermentation of
toxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and Claviceps purpurea both contribute to ...
poultry products are especially susceptible to contamination by
Salmonella serotypes that infect the bird
Recalcitrant compounds are ______ resistant to microbial degradation than those that are not recalcitrate
toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis affects catepillars by...
lysing cells of the gut wall
all of following release CO2 into the atmosphere:
-combustion of coal,
-respiration in the ocean
-respiration of land plants
organisms of botulism, tetanus and diphtheria are distinguished by
production of exotoxins
epidemic disease is one that...
breaks out in explosive proportions in a population
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a soil organism. every time we eat fresh salad, consume millions of these organisms. they usually do no harm. however, same organisms can cause serious infection in people who have been severely burned. such pathogen is called..
DNA vaccines consist of:
plasmids engineered to contain a protein-encoding gene
certain microrganisms inhabit parts of the body without casuing symptoms of disease, organisms referred as
Rubor, calor, tumor, and dolar are
4 characteristics of inflammation
True or false:
natural barrier to intestine is provided by extremely alkaline environment of stomach
true/false: fever is an abnormally high body temperature that may provide a specific mechanism of body defense.
true/false: most antigens are large, complex molecules that are not normally present in body
in carbon cycle, most carbon is release from dead organic matter as carbon dioxide which reenters the atmosphere
nitrification is the conversion of ammonia to nitrite ions, followed by conversion of nitrite to nitrate
sauerkraut is made from fermentation of shredded cabbage
sake is made from fermentation of soybeans
freezing is an effective way of killing all mmicroorganisms within a food product and ensuring its sterility
chemical physical properties of food that bear on the type of possible contamination include the amt of water present, pH and physical structure of food.
foodborne infections include typhoid fever, diphtheria, brucellosis, and Rocky Mtn spotted fever.
one of major fears about use of recombinant DNA technology is that ecosystem disruption could result from environmental release of genetically engineered organisms.
use of modern molecular techniques has provided a mechanism for growing the microorganisms previously reffered to as unculturable
true/false: Agrobacterium has ability to infect plants and prouce tumor-like growths
microorganisms in water can utilize oxygen faster than it can be redissolved if enoguh nutrients are available
low-nutrient, oligotrophic waters will usually become stratified and have an anerobic hypolimnion at a certain times of the year
epilimnion of a lake is located below hypolimnion.
living microorganisms found in soils and water are generally capable of growth on common lab. media