psychology chapter 15

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psychology chapter 15
2011-02-25 23:08:44
psychology chapter vocabulary

Therapies for Psychological Disorders
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  1. biomedical therapy
    treatment for a pyschological disorder that alters brain functioning with chemical or physical interventions such as drug therapy, surgery or electroconvulsive therapy
  2. psychotherapy
    any of a group of therapies, used to treat psychological disorders, that focus on changing faulty behaviors, thoughts, perceptions, and emotions that may be associated with specific disorders
  3. clinical social worker
    a mental health professional whose specialized training prepares him or her to consider the social context of people's problems
  4. pastoral counselor
    a member of a religious order who specializes in the treatment of psychological disorders, often combining spirituality with practical problemsolving
  5. clinical psychologist
    an individual who has earned a doctorate in psychology and whose training is in the assessment and treatment of psychological problems
  6. counseling psychologists
    psychologist who specializes in providing guidance in areas such as vocational selections, school problems, drug abuse, and marital conflict
  7. psychiatrist
    an individual who has obtained an MD degree and also has completed postdoctoral specialty training in mental and emotional disorders; a psychiatrist may prescribe medications for the treatment of psychological disorders
  8. psychoanalyst
    an individual who has earned either a PhD or an MDdegree and has completed postgraduate training in the Freudian approach to understanding and treating mental disorders
  9. patient
    the tern used by those who take biomedical approach to the treatment of psychological problems to describe the person being treated
  10. client
    the term used by clinicians who think of psychological disorders as problems in living, and not as mental illnesses, to describe those being treated
  11. deinstitutionalization
    the movement to treat people with psychological disorders in the community rather than in psychiatric hospitals
  12. psychoanalysis
    the form of psychodynamic therapy developed by Freud; an intensive prolonged technique for exploring unconscious motivations and conflicts in neurotic, anxiety-ridden individuals
  13. insight therapy
    a technique by which the therapist guides a patient toward discovering insights between present symptoms and past origins
  14. free association
    the therapeutic method in which a patient gives a running account of thoughts, wishes, physical sensations, and mental images as they occur
  15. catharsis
    the process of expressing strongly felt but usually repressed emotion
  16. resistance
    the inability or unwillingness of a patient in psychoanalysis to discuss certain ideas, desires, or experiences
  17. dream analysis
    the psychoanalytic interpretation of dreams used to gain insight into a person's unconscious motives or conflicts
  18. transference
    the process by which a person in psychoanalysis attaches t a therapist feelings formerly held toward some significant person who figured into past emotional conflict
  19. countertransference
    circumstances in which a psychoanalyst develops personal feelings about a client because of perceived similarity of the client to significant people in the therapist's life
  20. behavior therapy
    see behavior modification
  21. behavior modification
    the systematic use of principles of learning to increase the frequency f desired behaviors and or decrease the frequency of problem behavior
  22. counterconditioning
    a technique used in therapy to substitute a new response for a maladaptive one by means of conditioning procedures
  23. exposure therapy
    a behavioral technique in which clients are exposed to the objects or situations that cause them anxiety
  24. systematic desensitization
    a behavioral therapy technique in which a client is taught to prevent the arousal of anxiety by confronting the feared stimulus while relaxed
  25. aversion therapy
    a type of behavioral therapy used to treat individuals attracted to harmful stimuli; an attractive stimulus is paired with a noxious stimulus in order to elicit a negative reaction to the target stimulus
  26. contingency management
    a general treatment strategy by modifying its consequences
  27. social learning therapy
    a form of treatment in which clients observe models' desirable behaviors being reinforced
  28. participant modeling
    a therapeutic technique in which a therapist demonstrates the desired behavior and a client is aided, through supportive encouragement, to imitate the modeled behavior
  29. behavioral rehearsal
    procedures used to establish and stregthen basic skills; as used in social-skills training programs, requires the client to rehearse a desirable behavior sequence mentally
  30. cognitive therapy
    a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that attempts to change feelings and behaviors by changing the way a client thinks about or perceives significant life experiences
  31. rational-emotive therapy (RET)
    a comprehensive system of personality change based on changing irrational beliefs that cause undesirable, highly charged emotional reactions such as severe anxiety
  32. cognitive behavioral therapy
    a therapeutic approach that combines the cognitive emphasis on thoughts and attitudes with the behavioral emphasis on changing performance
  33. human-potential movement
    the therapy movement that encompasses all those practices and methods that release the potential of the average human being for greater levels of performance and greater richness of experience
  34. client-centered therapy
    a humanistic approach to treatment that emphasizes the healthy psychological growth of the individual based on the assumption that all people share the basic tendency of human nature toward self-actualization
  35. gestalt therapy
    therapy that focuses on ways to unite mind and body to make a person whole
  36. psychopharmacology
    the branch of psychology that investigates the effects of drugs on behavior
  37. psychosurgery
    a surgical procedure performed on brain tissue to alleviate a psychological disorder
  38. preforontal lobotomy
    an operation that severs the nerve fibers connecting the frontal lobes of the brain with diencephalon, especially those fibers in the thalamic and hypothalamic areas; best known form of psychosurgery
  39. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
    the use of electroconvulsive shock as an effective treatment for severe depression
  40. spontaneous-remission effect
    the improvement of some mental patients and clients in psychotherapy without any professional intervention; a baseline criterion against which the effectiveness of therapies must be assessed
  41. placebo therapy
    a therapy interdependent of any specific clinical procedures that results in client improvement
  42. meta-analysis
    a statistical technique for evaluation hypotheses by providing a formal mechanism for detecting the general conclusions found in data from many different experiments