Biology chapter 5

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Biology chapter 5
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2011-02-24 12:20:40
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Bio 110 chapter 5
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  1. Membranes are a fluid mosaic of __________ and ___________
    • phospholipids
    • proteins
  2. Membranes are a ________ _________ of phospholipids and proteins.
    fluid mosaic
  3. What is it called a fluid mosaic?
    • mosaic b/c there are proteins embedded in the phospholipids
    • - fluid because the proteins can move around in the phospholipids
  4. Many phospholipids are made from _______ ________ _______ that have kinks in their tail
    unsaturated fatty acids
  5. The kinking from unsaturated fatty acids prevents:
    the phospholipids from packing too tightly together, keeping the membrane fluid.
  6. In animal cells, ______ is also wedged into the bilayer to help keep it liquid at lower temperatures.
    cholesterol
  7. Some _________ in the membrane serve as identification tags that are specifically recognized by membrane proteins of other cell
    glycoproteins
  8. - cell-cell recognition enables cells of the ________ _________ to recognize and reject foreign cells, such as infectious bacteria
    immune system
  9. Biological membranes exhibit __________ _______: property that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
    selective permeability
  10. Two types of molecules in selective permeability:
    • - Nonpolar molecules (carbon dioxide and oxygen) cross easily.
    • - Polar molecules (glucose and other sugars) do not cross easily
  11. Transport across a membrane can be _______or ______
    • passive
    • active
  12. Passive transport does not require:
    energy; solutes move with concentration gradient
  13. Active transport requires:
    energy; solutes move against concentration gradient.
  14. _______ is the process in which particles spread out evenly in an available space
    Diffusion
  15. What is Diffusion?
    Diffusion is the process in which particles spread out evenly in an available space
  16. Particles diffuse down their:
    concentration gradient
  17. Simple diffusion across a cell membrane is:
    passive transport.
  18. ________ is the diffusion of water across a membrane down its concentration gradient
    Osmosis
  19. Osmosis is:
    the diffusion of water across a membrane down its concentration gradient
  20. ________ _______ between cells and their surroundings is crucial to organisms.
    Water balance
  21. Many organisms are able to maintain water balance within their cells by a process called ________, a processs that prevents excessive uptake or excessive loss of water
    osmoregulation
  22. osmoregulation is?
    Many organisms are able to maintain water balance within their cells by a process called osmoregulation, a processs that prevents excessive uptake or excessive loss of water
  23. _______ is a term that describes the ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause that cell to gain or lose water
    Tonicity
  24. Tonicity is:
    a term that describes the ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause that cell to gain or lose water
  25. _______ concentration of solute is the same on both sides
    Isotonic
  26. Isotonic is:
    conentration. of solute is the same on both side
  27. _______ conentration.of solute is higher outside the cell
    Hypertonic
  28. Hypertonic is:
    concentration of solute is higher outside the cell
  29. ________ concentration of solute is higher inside the cell
    Hypotonic
  30. Hypotonic is:
    concentration of solute is higher inside the cell
  31. Passive transport can occur with or without ______ _______
    transport proteins
  32. Many substances that are necessary for viability of the cell do not freely ________across the membrane
    diffuse
  33. Substances that are necessary for viability of the cell do not freely diffuse across the membrane.They require the help of specific transport proteins that assist in ___________ _________, a type of passive transport that does not require energy.
    facilitated diffusion
  34. facilitated diffusion is:
    a type of passive transport that does not require energy.
  35. Some proteins in facilitated diffusion function by becoming a _______ _______ for passage
    hydrophilic tunnel
  36. The transport protein is __________for the substrate, which can be sugars, amino acids, ions, and water (aquaporins)
    specific
  37. Transport across a membrane can be _______ or ________describe each:
    • passive
    • active

    - Passive transport does not require energy; solutes move with concentration gradient.

    - Active transport requires energy; solutes move against concentration gradient
  38. Active transport requires the expenditure of energy in the form of_________
    ATP
  39. Active trasport alters the shape of the membrane protein through _______ using ATP
    phosphorylation
  40. Active trasports 4 steps are:
    1) Solute attaches to a specific binding site on the transport protein.

    2) ATP transfers 1 phosphate group to the transport protein.

    3) Transport protein changes shape and the solute is released on the other side of the membrane

    .4) Phosphate group detaches and transport protein returns to original shape.
  41. Active transports 4 steps:

    1) Solute attaches to a specific binding site on the _______ _________.

    2) _______ transfers 1 _______ _________ to the transport protein.

    3) ______ ________ changes shape and the solute is released on the other side of the membrane.

    4) _____ ________ detaches and________ _______ returns to original shape.
    1. transport protein

    2. ATP, phosphate group

    3. Transport protein

    4. Phosphate group, transport protein
  42. ________ and ___________ transport large molecules across membranes
    Exocytosis, endocytosis
  43. ________ is used to export bulky molecules, such as proteins or polysaccharides
    Exocytosis
  44. Exocytosis is used:
    to export bulky molecules, such as proteins or polysaccharides
  45. _________ is used to import substances necessary for the cell.
    Endocytosis
  46. Endocytosis is used:
    to import substances necessary for the cell.
  47. In Exosytosis and Endocytosis, material to be transported is packaged within a ________ that fuses with the membrane
    vesicle
  48. Exocytosis: Transport vesicle filled with _______ buds from __________ ________, fuses with ________ ________, and contents spill out of the cell
    macromolecules, Golgi aparatus, plasma membrane
  49. Endocytosis: ________ is engulfment of a particle by wrapping cell membrane around it, forming a vacuole.
    Phagocytosis
  50. Phagocytosis is:
    Endocytosis Example: Phagocytosis is engulfment of a particle by wrapping cell membrane around it, forming a vacuole.
  51. Endocytosis/Phagocytosis: ______ + digestive enzymes buds from _____ ________, fuses with food vacuole and enzymatically breaks down (digests) the food
    Lysosome, rough ER
  52. Cells are small ______ _______. Thousands of _______reactions result in maintenance of the cell, manufacture of cellular parts, and replication.
    chemical factories, chemical
  53. ___________ is the capacity to perform work/ re-arrange matter
    Energy
  54. _______ is accomplished when an object is moved against an opposing force
    Work
  55. 2 types of energy
    Potential energy is stored energy; energy that matter possesses b/c of its location or arrangement. i.e. water behind a damMolecules possess potential energy b/c of the arrangement of their atoms.

    Chemical energy is potential energy available for release in chemical reactions.

    Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. i.e. water flowing over a dam

    Heat, or thermal energy, is kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms.
  56. 2 laws govern energy transformations in organisms.
    Thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations.

    The first law of thermodynamics is that all energy in the universe is constant.

    - a.k.a. Law of Conservation: energy can be transferred and transformed but cannot be created or destroyed.

    The second law of thermodynamics is that energy conversions increase the disorder of the universe b/c during every transfer or transformation of energy, some energy becomes unavailable to do work

    Entropy is the measure of disorder, or randomness.
  57. Chemical reactions either _______or ______energy
    release, store
  58. A chemical reaction that releases energy (that is stored in covalent bonds) is an ________ _______
    exergonic reaction
  59. exergonic reaction is:
    A chemical reaction that releases energy (that is stored in covalent bonds) is an exergonic reaction
  60. A chemical reaction that requires an input of energy an _______ _______; yields products rich in potential energy (stored in covalent bonds of the products)
    endergonic reaction
  61. endergonic reaction is:
    A chemical reaction that requires an input of energy an endergonicreaction; yields products rich in potential energy (stored in covalent bonds of the products)
  62. All of the thousands of combined endergonic and exergonic chemical reactions produced by a living organism is called ___________.
    metabolism
  63. metabolism is:
    All of the thousands of combined endergonic and exergonic chemical reactions produced by a living organism is called metabolism.
  64. A _________ ________ is a series of chemical reactions that either break down a complex molecule or build up a complex molecule
    metabolic pathway
  65. To accomplish work, a cell uses exergonic processes to drive endergonicprocesses = ___________ _______
    energy coupling
  66. ________ shuttles chemical energy and drives cellular work.
    ATP
  67. ATP stands for:
    adenosine triphosphate, is the energy currency of cells
  68. ATP is composed of:
    • 3 phosphate groups
    • 5-Carbon sugar - ribose
    • Nitrogenous base - adenine
  69. ATP is a _______ __________ of energy for the cell.- When energy is released in an exergonic reaction, such as breakdown of glucose, the energy is used in an endergonic reaction to generate ATP
    renewable source

    exergonic

    endergonic
  70. ____________ of ATP releases energy by transferring its third phosphate to some other molecule = phosphorylation.
    Hydrolysis

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