Animal Classification, Diversity and Behavior

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Animal Classification, Diversity and Behavior
2011-02-24 17:25:26
Bio II Midterm

26, 32, 52
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  1. phylogony
    the evolutionary history of a species or group of species
  2. systematics
    a discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships; used to construct phylogenies
  3. binomial
    the first part of the binomial naming system is the genus and is where the species belongs; the second part is called the specific epithet and is unique for each species within the genus
  4. taxon
    the named taxonomic unit at any level of the hierarchy
  5. phylogenetic tree
    the evolutionary history of a group of organisms can be represented in a branching diagram
  6. PhyloCode
    a classification based entirely on evolutionary relationships; it only names groups that include a common ancestor and all of its descendants
  7. sister taxa
    groups of organisms that share an immediate common ancestor and are therefore each other's closest relatives
  8. a tree that is rooted...
    means that a branch point within the tree represents the last common ancestor of all taxa in the tree
  9. polytomy
    a branch point from which more than two decendant groups emerge; indicates that evolutionary relationships among the descendant taxa are not yet clear
  10. analogy
    a similarity due to convergent evolution; a bat wing is ANALOGOUS to a bird's wing
  11. homoplasies
    analogous structures that arose independently (from the Greek "to mold in the same way")
  12. molecular homoplasies
    shared nucleotide bases in organisms that are otherwise very different; coincidental matches
  13. molecular systematics
    uses DNA and other molecular data to determine evolutionary relationships
  14. cladistics
    biologists place species into groups called clades, each of which includes an ancestral species and all of its decendents
  15. monophyletic
    a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade, meaning that it contains all the descendants of the possibly hypothetical closest common ancestor of the members of the group
  16. paraphyletic
    a group which consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of its decendents
  17. polyphyletic
    includes taxa with different ancestors
  18. shared ancestral character
    a character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon; (ex: in mammals, the backbone)
  19. shared derived character
    an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade (ex: in mammals, hair)
  20. outgroup
    a species or group of species from an evolutionary lineage that is known to have diverged before the lineage that includes the species we are studying (ingroup)
  21. maximum parsimony (Occam's Razor)
    it is important to first investigate the simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts
  22. maximum likelihood
    given certain rules about how DNA changes over time, a tree can be found that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events
  23. phylogenetic bracketing
    we can predict (using parsimony) that features shared by two groups of closely related organisms are present in their common ancestor and all of its descendants
  24. orthologous genes
    homologous genes that are found in different species because of speciation; widespread and can extend over huge evolutionary distances
  25. paralogous genes
    result from gene duplication, so they are found in more than one copy in the same genome
  26. molecular clock
    a yardstick for measuring the absolute time of evolutionary change baseed on the observation that some genes and other regions of genomes appear to evolve at constant rates
  27. neutral theory
    much of evolutionary change in genes and proteins ahs no effect on fitness and therefore is not influenced by Darwinian selection
  28. horizontal gene transfer
    the movement of genes between organisms in different domains; the process in which genes are transfered form one genome to another through mechanisms such as exchange of transposable elements and plasmids, viral infection, and PERHAPS fusion of organisms
  29. animal
    multicellular (with tissues that develop from embryonic layers), heterotrophic eukaryotes
  30. animal cells differ from plant cells:
    food is stored as Glycogen (not starch), they have cell membranes but NO cell walls, and they have intercellular junctions absent in plants (gap junctions, desmosomes and tight junctions)
  31. the dominant stage of an animal life cycle is:
  32. cleavage
    a succession of mitotic cell division wihtout cell growth; occurs between division cycles
  33. blastula
    a multicellular stage (hollow ball of cells) that comes about because of cleavage
  34. gastrula
    the ball of cells (blastula) forms an inpocketing, the gastrula
  35. archenteron
    gut-cavity; results from the creation of the inpocketing
  36. larva
    a sexually immature and morphologically distinct from the adult; it eventually undergoes metamorphosis
  37. metamorphosis
    transformation that turns animals into a juvenile that resembles an adult but isn't sexually mature
  38. how many living species of animals have been identified?
    1.3 million
  39. closest living relatives of animals:
  40. Neoproterozoic Era
    1 Billion–524 Million Years Ago; early members of the animal fossil record include the Ediacaran biota, which dates from 565 to 550 million years ago
  41. Paleozoic Era
    542–251 Million Years Ago; encompassed the Cambrian explosion = earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals
  42. hypotheses regarding the cause of the Cambrian explosion:
    • 1) new predator prey relationships
    • 2) rise in atmospheric oxygen
    • 3) evolution of the Hox gene complex
  43. Animals made it in land by _____ mya. Vertebrates made the transition ___ mya.
    460 mya, and 360 mya
  44. how many species were extinct by the end of the paleozoic?
  45. Mesozoic Era
    251-65.6 mya; coral reefs emerge as important niches for other organisms; dinosaurs were dominant on land; first mammals evolved; it ended with a mass extinction
  46. Cenozoic Era
    65.5 mya to present; the time period when modern mammal orders and insects diversified
  47. radial symmetry
    such animals have oral/aboral sides; (top and bottom but no front/back or left/right)
  48. bilateral symmetry
    has two axis of orientation: from to back and top to bottom; such animals have dorsal and ventral sides, anterior and posterior ends, and cephalization
  49. ectoderm
    germ layer covering the embryo's surface; gives rise to outer covering of animal & sometimes CNS
  50. endoderm
    innermost germ layer, and lines the developing digestive tube (archenteron); also gives rise to additional organs
  51. dipoblastic animals
    animals that have an ecto and endoderm (only 2 germ layers) [Cnidarians]
  52. tripoblastic
    all bilaterally symmetrical animals; have 3 germ layers; 3rd is called the mesoderm (forms the muscles and some other organs), which separates the endo from the ectoderm [ex: flatworms, arthropods, vertebrates]
  53. coelom
    true body cavity procudes from and lined w/ mesoderm; animals that posses one are called coelomates
  54. pseudocoelomates
    body cavity that is formed from the mesoderm AND endoderm
  55. spiral cleavage
    occurs during protostome development; when the planes of cell division are diagonal to the vertical axis of the embryo
  56. determinate cleavage
    occurs during protostome development; developmental fate of each embryonic cell is determined very early in development
  57. radial cleavage
    occurs during deuterostome development; when the planes of cell division are either parallel or perpendicular to the vertical axis of the embryo; tiers are aligned
  58. indeterminate cleavage
    occurs during deuterostome development; each cell produced by early cleavage retains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo (what makes identical twins possible)
  59. In protostome development, the coelom is formed from...
    the splitting of solid masses of mesoderm
  60. In deuterostome development, the coelom is formed from...
    the mesoderm budding from the wall of the archenteron
  61. In protostome development, the blastopore becomes...
    the mouth
  62. In deuterostome development, the blastopore becomes...
    the anus
  63. two tissues unique to animals provide the basis for behavior:
    muscle (movement) and nerve (coordination and modification through experience) tissue
  64. kinesis
    a movement or activity of a cell or an organism in response to a stimulus (Ex. increased isopod [sow bug] movement in dry conditions --- more likely to result in finding wetter enviro)
  65. proximate causation
    "how" a behavior occurs or is modified
  66. ultimate causation
    "why" a behavior occurs i the context of natural selection
  67. fixed action pattern
    a sequence of unlearned acts that is unchangeable and once initiated, carried to completion; the trigger is a sign stimulus
  68. taxis
    an oriented movement toward (positive) or away from (negative) some stimulus (ex: river fish automatically orienting themselves in upward direction
  69. olfaction
    smell does NOT convey directionality, but movement of the medium does; shown in moth pheromones, how they fly toward wind until they reach mate AND salmon: they imprint on native river, and in attempting to return from ocean, there is positive rheotaxis in the natal area (because of smell) and NEGATIVE rheotaxis in absence of natal area
  70. sound can be used...
    directions of sound can be figured out based on the differences in the two ears (noctuids and arctiids use to avoid predators)
  71. sickleback territoriality
    example of innate behavior; the attack itself is an FAP; the sign stimulus is anything red (or red underbelly, which only male sticklebacks have)
  72. learning
    modification of behavior through experience