Compromise position of Democrats and Douglas [1850's] in debate over expansion of slavery into the Western Territories. Let people of West decide for themselves the questions of slavery. Broke down in Kansas.
Favor punishing the South and full equality. For freedom during reconstruction , including to vote. Came to power after Lincoln's death.
14th and 15th Amendment plus African-American participation. Also shows supremacy of Federal Government. Contrast Lincoln's 10 percent plan, Johnson's plan and Congressional Radical Republicans' plan.
Unfair economic system replaced slavery in South. Planters own land
Sherman, William T.
Total warpath of destruction throughout the South
Sherman's March to the Sea
Attempt to win by destroying South's will and capacity to fight
Before Civil War southern state laws regulated what a slave could and couldn't do. Example: It was illegal to teach a slave to read
Lincoln's Vice President, became President. April 1865, lenient reconstruction plan for the South. Protects white South.
Impeachment of President Andrew Johnson
Impeached for political rather than legal reasons by radical Republicans. He avoided being removed from office by one vote.
1854 by Stephen Douglas. Part of a deal for Northern route transcontinental railroad. Allowed slavery in Louisiana Purchase where it had not been allowed by Missouri Compromise. Angered the North. Leads to "Bleeding Kansas" and Republican party formation.
Appomattox Court House
April 1865. Lee surrenders to Grant
Replaced Slave Code. Some rights but still ex Confederate States of America states restrict Freedmens' Rights [violate their Civil Rights]. 1865-1866: North acts to end this. See 14th Amendment.
1856 Civil War in Kansas: Proslavery versus Antislavery ( cause Kansas-Nebraska Act). Shows popular sovereignty won't work.
Booth, John Wilkes
April 1865. Southern sympathizer who shoots Lincoln.
Created in 1865 to help freedmen adjust. Provided education, hospitals, etc. Resented by white South.
By Stephen A. Douglas, 1858. Said Western territories could stop slavery by refusing to pass laws to support it. Used to prop Popular Sovereignty after Dred Scott decision which had said territories could not exclude slavery. Freeport Doctrine angered the south.
Fugitive Slave Act
required Northerners to assist in the return of runaway slaves and denied any accused whether actually free or not a trial by jury.
African- American Participation
During Reconstruction, 1867-1876. Blacks voted and held high offices: Lt. Gov, Senator, Representative etc.
Civil War: Union plan to cut South's trade
Sept. 1862, Maryland. Lee's first defeat. Union victory. Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation. Britain will not help the South. See emancipation proclamation.
AKA Abolitionists: Leader William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator, and Frederick Douglas, the North Star. Slavery is a sin! Spiritually led to their work. Tied to religion and women's movement.
1859 Raid on arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Va. The south sees mad man and conspiracy
Northerners who came South after Civil War. Voted Republican
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Congress passed laws to end Black Codes
Compromise of 1850
California a free state.
Rest of Mexican cession is divided into Utah and New Mexico
Fugitive slave act
Voters in each territory would decide the slavery issue
slave trade ends in Washington D.C.
Compromise of 1877
South accepts Republican, Hayes as President
Form of government used by Confederate States of America (CSA). Weak alliance of states: disadvantage for South in the war.
After Reconstruction control by Democratic Planters. Solid Democratic party support by the South. lasts until the 1960's. Many still blamed war and Reconstruction on Republicans.
Radical Republican. Pushed Reconstruction plans.
Jim Crow Laws
1880-90's. South. Laws Segregate blacks and white in all public facilities. Led to Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) "Separate but equal" doctrine interpretation of the 14th Amendment.
Jackson, Thomas "Stonewall"
Great Confederate States of America (CSA) General. Rallied South at Bull Run, wounded in battle and died of infection.
An arsenal raided in 1859 that shows violence is likely to end slavery. At the time of the raid Harper's Ferry is in Virginia today it is West Virginia.
First Battle of Bull Run/Manassas
First real battle. Shows both sides long and bloody war is coming. July 1861: North's attempt to take Richmond gets nowhere. Now it will be total war of new technology and economic out-put.
Fort Sumter, S.C.
April 1861. First shots. Confederate States of America (CSA) fires on Fort Sumter until it surrenders. Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers to put down Rebellion
Free Soil Party
1848. Committed to stopping expansion of slavery in the West because slavery was bad for blacks and poor whites.
December 1865. Ends slavery over whole U.S.
Makes former slaves US citizens. Says states cannot violate rights of citizens, 1867. aimed at Black Codes. Establishes civil rights for freedom.
Gives slaves right to vote 1869.States cannot deny vote on basis of race (South found other ways to take black vote [disenfranchisement] via poll tax and literacy test).
Election of 1860
Lincoln wins over three candidates. He won electoral votes only in North: shows Sectionalism. South secedes. Immediate causes of the war along with Fort Sumter.
Election of 1864
Lincoln wins close election over Gen McClellan. Means war will continue to victory.
Election of 1876
Republican. Hayes wins over Democratic Tilden. Disputed electoral vote leads to Compromise of 1877.
Issued Sept 1862. Freed slaves in areas of Rebellion. Gave North a clear goal to end slavery. Now Europe [England and France] would not help the South.
1858. In Illinois senate race. Lincoln emerges as leader opposed to expansion of slavery
Union General fired by Lincoln. Too cautious. Runs against Lincoln in 1864 as Democrat on Peace Platform
1867-1976. Military occupation of south 1867 ordered by congressional radical republicans. Put south into five military districts. Protect the freedman [South resisted -KKK]. North gives up on the whole idea in 1877. White south takes back over and freedmen lose rights gained in reconstruction
Missouri slave state, Maine free state. Balance = slave and free state. Plus slavery banned in Louisiana purchase north of 36-30 (36 degrees 30 degrees North)
Tenant of Office Act
Used to impeach Andrew Jackson when he fired Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton, a radical Republican. The law was probably an unconstitutional violation of checks and balances and separation of powers.
Similar to sharecropping except able to rent land up front
The Whiskey Ring
Corrupt tax collections in Grant administration. Cheated government of millions. Led to calls for reform in Spoils System.
One of the major "conductors" of the underground railroad and known as "Moses"' made at least 19 trips into the south to help some 300 slaves to escape. Underground Railroad was secret network of hiding placing for runaway slaves used to escape to freedom.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Secret escape route of slaves to the North before Civil War.
Turning point of the Civil War: on Mississippi River July 1863, Falls into Union hands
Writ of Habeas Corpus
Suspended by Lincoln in Civil War, giving him the authority to arrest, without trial, any suspected southern sympathizers in the North. May have violated the Constitution. Example of Lincoln's expansion of presidential power.
Founded 1854 after Kansas-Nebraska Act. Committed to stopping expansion of slavery. During Reconstruction the party in the south was blacks, carpetbaggers and scalawags and it controlled Southern state governments.
White southerners who joined blacks and carpetbaggers in Republican Party. Viewed as tailors by most southerners.
To withdraw from the Union. 11 states seceded to form Confederate States of America (CSA). States` rights view of constitution. Concept was based on 10th amendment
Ku Klux Klan
White Democratic Southern vigilant group terrorizes black votes after Civil War.
Lee, Robert E.
South's best General. Defends Richmond and heads Army of Northern Virginia.
President of the United States during the Civil War. Fights to save the Union. Expands Presidential Powers. North's victory shows supremacy of Federal Government.
July 1863. Turning point. Lee's Army is broken and retreats to Virginia. Lee now is able to fight a defensive war only.
November 1863. Lincoln promises to fight on to make sure dead did not die in vain.
Grant, Ulysses S.
Union General who used brute force to wear down Lee.
Stowe, Harriet Beecher
wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, 1852 Book helped North see slavery was morally wrong, leading to war. Increased sectionalism.
1856. Brooks beat Summer in Congress. Shows split in North and South. Summer was abolitionist.
Southern sympathizers in the North, mostly Democrats. Opposed Lincoln and resisted the war. Also Irish Draft riots in NY shows resistance to the war.
President of the Confederate States of America (CSA).
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
Ruled blacks were not citizens. Ruled Congress could not stop slavery in the west.
the movement concentrated on ending slavery in the United States
Largest slave uprisings in the colonies prior to the American Revolution. It happened in 1739.
Gabriel Prosser's Rebellion
Failed revolt led by Gabriel, slave preacher & blacksmith, in Richmond Virginia in 1800
Denmark Vesey's conspiracy
The most carefully devised slave revolt in which rebel's planned to seize control of Charleston in 1822 and escape to freedom in Haiti but they were betrayed by other slaves, and seventy-five conspirators were executed.
Uprising of slave in Southhampton County, Virginia in the summer of 1831 led by Nat Turner and resulted in the deaths of 55 white people.
Presidential election of 1852 Franklin Pierce (d) W. Scott (Whig) - Pierce won, Presidential election of 1856 - James Buchanon (D) John C. Freemont (R) - Buchanon won.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
States can vote themselves as slave states or not
1854 - This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Constitutions of Kansas
Born out of the Kansas Nebraska act --against ---- and expansion of it in the -----, purely sectional party located in the --------
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
Common form of farming for freed slaves in the South
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
1st Battle of Bull Run
1st major battle of Civil War, and the Confederate's victory. The battle is also known as the first Battle of Manassas. It shattered the North's hopes of winning the war quickly.
black regiment led by white commander robert gould shaw
provided: food, clothing, jobs, medical care, schools for former slaves and the poor whites
Tenure of Office Acts
Required the President to seek approval from the Senate before removing appointees. When Andrew Johnson removed his secretary of war in violation of the act, he was impeached by the house but remained in office when the Senate fell one vote short of removing him.