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Pedagogical practices in general (including theoretical underpinnings and related research). Whatever considerations are involved in "how to teach" are methodological.
Theoretically well-informed positions and beliefs about the nature of language, the nature of language learning, and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings.
Classical Method: focus on grammatical rules, memorization of vocabulary and of various declensions and conjugations, translations of texts, written exercises.
Curriculum / Syllabus
Specifications-or in Richards and Rodgers's terminology, "designs" -for carrying out a particular language program. Features include a primary concern with the specification of linguistic and subject-matter objectives, sequencing, and materials to meet the needs of a designated group of learners in a defined context. (The term "syllabus" is used more customarily in the United Kingdom to refer to whatis commonly called a "curriculum" in the United States.)
Direct Method Principles
- 1. Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language.
- 2. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.
- 3. Oral communication skillswere built up in a carefully traded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small,intensive classes.
- 4. Grammar was taught inductively.
- 5. New teaching points were taught through modeling and practice.
- 6. Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas.
- 7. Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.
- 8. Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.
Teaching method basied on the idea that second language learning should be more like first language learning -- lots of oral interaction, spontaneous use of the language, no translation between first and second languages, and little or no analysis of grammatical rules.
Grammar Translation Method
Essentially, a new term for the Classical Method: 'In the nineteenth century the Classical Method came to be known as the Grammar Translation Method.'
Grammar Translation Method Principles
- 1. Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.
- 2. Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words.
- 3. Long,elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given.
- 4. Grammar provides the rules for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words.
- 5. Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early.
- 6. Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis.
- 7. Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue.
- 8. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.
A generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives. Methods tend to be concerned primarily with teacher and student roles and behaviors and secondarily with such features as linguistic and subject-matter objectives, sequencing, and materials. They are sometimes -- but not always -- thought of as being broadly applicable to a variety of audiences in a variety of contexts.
Gouin devised this method to teach learners directly (without translation) and conceptually (without grammatical rules and explanations) a "series" of connected sentences that are easy to perceive.
Any of a wide variety of exercises, activities, or tasks used in the language classroom for realizing lesson objectives (also commonly referred to by other terms) .