Bio Chapter 17 and 31

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Bio Chapter 17 and 31
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  1. General Characteristics of Fungi
    • Eukaryotic
    • Most are mulitcellular (except yeast)
    • Heterotrophic (nutrients via hydrolytic enzymes)
    • Roles: Saprophytic, parasitic, mutualistic, or predaceous
    • Cell walls made of Chitin
  2. Chitin
    Cell wall material in fungi
  3. Hyphae
    Thread like, grows into a mass of mycelium
  4. Septate fungi
    Have hyphae divided by walls (septum=wall)
  5. Aseptate/Coenocytic
    No walls, so many nuclei within the same cytoplasm

    See diagram
  6. Sporangia
    Reproductive Structure
  7. Fruiting Bodies
    Reproductive Structure
  8. Deuteromycota
    Fungi that show no form of sexual reproduction, imperfect.
  9. Fungi Reproductive Cycle
    • Haploid spore
    • Heterokaryotics fused-unfused nuclei
    • Diploid zygote

    See diagram
  10. Chytrids
    Flagellated spores; found in lakes, ponds and soil (mostancient); decomposers or parasitic
  11. Zygomycetes:
    • (Zygote fungi)
    • Produce haploid sproes by meiosis
    • fast growing molds-bread and fruit
    • parasites on animals
  12. Glomereomycetes:
    • (arbuscular mychorrhizal fungi)-lives in harmony
    • Form distinct michorrhiza in which hyphae that invade roots branch into tiny tree-like structures called arbuscules
    • 90% of plants have this relationship
  13. Arbuscules
    Tiny, tree-like structures that relate to Glomereomycetes
  14. Ascomycetes
    • (Sac fungi)
    • Asci produce spores
    • Marine, fresh water, or terrestrial
    • Diverse group from unicellular yeasts to morels and cup fungi
    • Plant pathogens
    • Lichens
  15. Basidiumycetes
    • (Club fungi)
    • Basidium=club shaped structure that producees spores
    • Decomposers-mushrooms, puffballs, shelf fungi (can break down lignin in wood
    • Parasites-rusts and smuts
  16. Ergotamine
    • (Lysergic acid)
    • Similar to LSD
    • Hallucinations by Salem "witches"
  17. Mycosis
    • Fungal infection
    • ex. athlete's foot fungus, ringworm, yeast infection
  18. Coccidiodomycosis
    A fungal lung infection similar to TB-life threatening
  19. Decomposers
    • Rid world of physical waste
    • Recycle needed nutrients
  20. Lichen
    • Symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a green algae or cyanobacteria
    • Fungus obtains organic compounds from photosynthetic partner, fungus provides phosphorus, H2O, and minerals
  21. Mycorrhiza
    • Fungus root
    • Relationship between plant root and fungus
    • Fungal hyphae brancch out into soil and take up mineral nutrients, some are passed onto plant roots and will receive food from the plant in return.
    • Relationship can also provide disease resistance to plnt and eliminate the need for fertilizer
    • Most land plants form mycorrhizal associations, may have been an important relationship for plants to become terrestrial.
  22. Monocot
    • 1 Cotyledon
    • Parallel vein arrangement in leaves
    • Complex vascular bundles arrangement in stems
    • Multiple of 3 flower parts
    • Fibrous root system
    • Ex. Bamboo
  23. Dicot
    • 2 Cotyledons
    • Multibranched vein arrangemetn in leaves
    • Ring vascular bundle arrangement in stems
    • Multiples of 4 or 5 flower parts
    • Vertical Taproot system
    • ex. Dandelion, Food crops, Shrubs, and Trees
  24. Node
    Poinits where leaves are attached
  25. Internode
    Portion of stem between nodes
  26. Blade
    Photosynthetic part of leave
  27. Petiole
    where stem attaches to leaf
  28. Fibrous root
    Thin roots spread out shallowly
  29. Taproot
    Vertical deeper root
  30. Root hairs
    Increase surface area of roots
  31. Apical dominance
    Phenomenon in whihc terminal buds produce hormones that inhibit growth of axillary buds;increases exposure to light; if terminal bud is removed, plant gets bushier
  32. Terminal bud
    At apex of stem, have developing leaves and nodes/internodes
  33. Axillary buds
    One in each angle formed by a leaf and a stem;usually dormant
  34. Stolon
    Horizontal stem that grows along ground surface, enable plant to reproduce asexually; ex. strawberries
  35. Rhizome
    Horizontal stems that grow just below or along soil surface, store food and have buds; ex. ginger
  36. Tubers
    Enlarges structures at the end of some rhizomes, specialized structures for nutrient storage; ex. potatoes
  37. Tendrils
    Help plants climb
  38. Parenchyma cells
    • (living), most abundant
    • Primary walls are thin and flexible
    • Lack secondary cell walls
    • Large central vacuole
    • Perform most metabolic functions of plants (in chloroplasts)
    • many can divide and differentiate into other types of plants cells
  39. Collenchyma cells
    • (living)
    • Unevenly thick primary cell walls used for plant support in plants that are still growing
    • lack secondary cell walls, no lignin
  40. Sclerenchyma cells
    • (dead when mature)
    • support element strengthened by secondary cell walls with lignin
    • occur in regions of plants that have stopped growth
    • Two types: Fibers- long and slender bundles, Sclereids-shorter, thick, irregular hard secondary cell wall (ex. nuts)
  41. Water Conducting Cells
    • Xylem
    • Dead when mature
    • Rigid secondary cell walls with lignin
    • Tracheids-Long thin cells with tapered ends
    • Vessel Elements- wider shourter and less tapered; overlap-tube system from roots to stem water passes through pits and openings in end wall
  42. Food-Conducting Cells
    • Phloem
    • Living, lose most organelles-pass more easily thorugh Sieve tube members
    • Sieve plates-end walls between STM, have pores
    • Companion cell- found along side of STM, connected by plasmodesmata, produces and transports proteins to STM
    • Source to sink
  43. Sieve plates
    end walls between STM, have pores, food conducting cells
  44. Tracheids
    • -Long thin cells with tapered ends
    • Water conducting cell
  45. Vessel Elements
    • - wider shourter and less tapered; overlap-tube system from roots to stem water passes through pits and openings in end wall
    • Water conducting cells
  46. Companion cells
    found along side of STM, connected by plasmodesmata, produces and transports proteins to STM, food conducting cells
  47. Dermal
    Outer layer of cells for protection
  48. Cuticle
    Waxy covering on stem
  49. Vascular
    • (Material transport)
    • Provides support and long-distance transport
  50. Xylem
    Water and dissolved minerals, roots to leaves
  51. Phloem
    transports nutrients from leaves to stem and roots
  52. Ground
    • (photosynthesis, storage, and support)
    • accounts for most bulk in a young plant
    • fills space between dermal and vascular tissues
  53. Pith
    Ground tissue that is internal to vascular tissue
  54. Cortex
    Ground tissues that in external to vascular tissue
  55. Meristems
    Tissues that make growth in plants possible
  56. Apical meristems
    Tips of buds and roots; control primary growth (increase in length)
  57. Lateral meristems
    Cylinders of dividing cells along length of roots and stems; control secondary growth (wood), increase in girth
  58. Root cap
    Protection of apical meristem cells in root
  59. Zone of cell division
    Primary (Apical meristem)
  60. Zone of elongation
    Cells lengthen, pushes root tip
  61. Zone of maturation
    Differentiation of cells (formation of three tissue systems)
  62. Stele
    Vascular bundle where both xylem and phloem develop (Root)
  63. Pith
    Central core of stele in monocot, parenchyma cells
  64. Cortex
    Region of the root between stele and epidermis (innermost layer endodermis) bulk of root
  65. Lateral roots
    Arise from pericycle (outermost layer of stele) just inside endodermis, cells may become meristematic (cells that actively divide)
  66. Stomata
    Tiny pores for gas exchange and transpiration; 2 guard cells
  67. Mesophyll
    ground tissue between upper and lower epidermis (parenchyma with chloroplasts); palisade (mostly photosynthesis) and spongy (gas circulation)
  68. Vascular cambium
    Adds layers of vascular tissue on either side of vascular cambium
  69. Bark
    Everything external to vasculara cambium (secondary phloem, cork cambium, and cork)
  70. Cork
    Brown outer layer that replaces epidermis
  71. Wood Rays
    Consist of parenchyma cells that transport water to the outer living tissues in the trunk
  72. Heartwood
    Center of trunk, consists of older layers of secondary xylem (no longer functioning)
  73. Sapwood
    Lighter colored, consistes of younger seconary xylem that does conduct water and minerals (xylem sap)
  74. Flower
    Reproductive shoot of angiosperms, contain 4 types of modified leaves
  75. Sepals
    Enclose and protect flower bud
  76. Petals
    Colorful advertisers to pollinators
  77. Stamen
    Male reproductive organ, composed of an anther (pollen) and filament (stalk)
  78. Carpel
    Female reproductive organ, composed of stigma (sticky), style (neck), and ovary (makes ovules, will become a developed egg after fertilization)
  79. Ovule
    • Central cell with protective covering of smaller cells
    • Contains triploid central
  80. Cotyledons
    • Seed leaf, first to appear
    • Provide food to embryo until leaves form
  81. Seed coat
    Tough outer covering of seed, formed from outer coat of ovule
  82. Seed dormancy
    condition in whihc growth and development are suspended temporarily (evolutionary adaptation)
  83. Simple fruit
    • Fruit derived from flower with single carpel
    • ex. peach, peas, nuts
  84. Aggregate fruit
    • Derived from flower with more than one carpel, clustered together
    • ex. Raspberry
  85. Multiple fruit
    • Derived from multiple flowers clustered together
    • ex. Pineapple
  86. Division Bryophyta
    • 475 mya
    • Noon vascular
    • Require water (flagellated spores)
    • ex. mosses, liverworts, hornwort
  87. Division Tracheophyta
    • 420 mya
    • Vascular tissues
    • Can grow upright
    • Move away from water
  88. Seed Producing
    • 360 mya
    • Seed protection to embryo
  89. Seedless (spore producing)
    • Flagellated spores-water
    • ex. Fern
  90. Gymnosperms
    • Uncovered seeds
    • Not in protective chambers
    • ex. gingko, conifer, cycods
  91. Angiosperms
    • 140 mya
    • Protected seeds
    • Flowering plants
  92. Gametangia
    Protective coverings around gamete-producing cells; carried by wind or animals
  93. Pollination
    Transfer of pollen from anther to stigma
  94. Pollen
    • Contains:
    • Tube nucleus (2n) digs pollen tub through pistil to ovary
    • Generative nucleus (2n) which divides to form two haploid sperm (n)
  95. Tube nucleus
    Digs pollen tube through pistil to ovary
  96. Generative nucleus
    Which divides to form two haploid sperm
  97. Fertilization
    Union of sperm and egg
  98. Double fertilizataion
    • Sperm 1 + egg=zygote-eventually becoming plant embryo
    • Sperm 2 + 2 polar nuclei=Endosperm-food for the embryo
  99. Endosperm
    • (3n)
    • which becomes food for the embryo
  100. Spines of Cactus
    Protection
  101. Grasses
    lack petioles
  102. Large taproots
    • that store carbs
    • ex. Carrots, turnips, sugarbeets, sweet potatoes

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