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- 2 Basic functions: to hold the testes and to regulate temperature of the testes.
- Divided into 2 compartments
- Each testis is suspended by the spermatic cord which contains the vas deferens.
- Sperm must be produced at 3 degrees lower than normal body temperature- even has sweat glands to provide a cooling effect.
- Cremaster muscles attached to testes relax or contract to regulate temperature.
- In most males the left testicle hangs lower because spermatic cord is longer.
- Functions are to secrete testosterone and produce sperm.
- Descend through a tunnel called the inguinal canal.
- Cryptorchidism is a condition where they do not descent- can use hormones or surgery to correct to prevent sterility and degeneration of the testes.
- Begins between ages of 10-15
- Two years before puberty the pituitary gland increases secretion of two hormones- follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone which stimulates the production of testosterone
- Testosterone initiates the development of secondary sex characteristics
- A coiled network of tubes that fill the sections in each testis. (Uncoiled-750 ft.)
- Spermatogeneis, sperm production, takes place in the seminiferous tubules.
- Spermatogonium, earlist development, takes place in the outer cell lining and as spermatogonium matures moves to the center of the tubules; it dividies a couple of times to form a mature sperm.
- Beings at age 12 first mature sperm usually found around age 14.
Characteristics of Mature Sperm
- Tiny--- 0.0024 inch
- Have a head, neck, midpiece, and tail
- Herediary material in head
- Tail used to move sperm
- Has 23 chromosomes
- Carries either an X or Y sex chromosomes
Environmental Effects on Sperm Production
- Reduce Production
- -High altitude
- -Hot water
- -Prolonged fever
- -Mumps resulting in orchitis (one testicle becomes swollen and painful).
- Increase production
- -Cold/ice 1/2 hour daily
- A comma-shaped structure found on the back and upper surface of each testis.
- Sperm move from seminiferous tubules into epididymis for 2-6 weeks.
- After maturing most moves to the vas deferens.
- Epididymitis- is the inflammation of the epididymis- UTI or STD/testicular pain
- Two long thin cords that extend from the epididymis into the abdomen.
- A passageway and storage area for sperm.
- Two small glands at the ends of each vas deferens
- Secrete an alkaline fluid rich in fructose
- Fructose is a source of energy for sperm
- Contributes to 60-70% of fluid ejaculated
- Alkalinity reduces acidity in the uretha, protecting sperm as they pass through it.
- A joining of the seminal vesicles and vas deferens
- Forms a short, straight tube that passes into the prostate gland and opens into the urethra.
- A gland that produces a milky, alkaline fulid that aid sperm longevity and neturalizes acidic secretions of the vagina and urethra.
- About the size of a chestnut, located immediately in front of the rectum.
- Can become enlarged as males age and should be monitored for cancer.
- Two pea-sized glands located on each side of the urethra.
- Secrete a lubricating fluid, called precoital fluid which precedes ejaculation.
- If sperm are in the urethra they could be found in this fluid, so pregnancy is possible even without ejaculation.
- A tubelike passageway that extends from the urinary bladder to the outside tip of the penis.
- Passageway for semen and urine.
- Before ejaculation the opening of the bladder closes
- Urine and semen are not in the urethra at the same time
- Urinating flushes the urethra and the acidity kills sperm.
- Root or base attaches penis to pelvic area
- Body or shaft is the main part
- Corona is the rim or crown
- Glans is the tip
- Foreskin is a fold of loose skin that cover the glans of uncircumcised males
- Frenulum is the underside of the penis where the glans is attached to the foreskin.
- Composed of three cylinders:
- -Corpus cavernosum- 2 on top
- -Corpus spongiosum- 1 on bottom
- Contain many spaces like a sponge.
- Spongy layers engorge with blood
- Produced by an involuntary reflex
- Nonerect usually 2.5-4 inches, erect- average 6 inches
- Orgasm- discharge of neuromuscular tensions, ejaculation may occur; usually less than a minute.
- Retrograde ejaculation-semen expelled into the bladder.
- Ejaculation- the expulsion of seminal fluid; usually less than a teaspoon- 360 million sperm.
- Inability to sustain an erection
- Affect 10-30 million males
- Not associated with aging, usually a physical condition-drugs or health conditions.
- Treatments available- viagra
Male Reproductive Health and Sexual Conerns: Hernia
- 8-9 month fetus testes pass through inguinal canal- the canal than closes usually by 2 months of age.
- If it fails to close an organ, such as intestine, located in the abdomen can pass or testes can go back.
- Weakened abdominal wall can also cause
- Affects 2% of U.S. males-can occur with aging or injury
- Symptoms include lump in groin, pain, or blockage of intestine.
- Must be corrected with surgery.
- Foreskin is surgically removed
- Complications include abnormal urination within 6-8 hours of procedure, continued bleeding, redness of penile tip.
- Removal may cause penial irritation, possible less sesnitivity.
- Slightly less risk for urinary tract infection during first year of life.
- Advantages include possible less risk of cancer and infection
- A tight foreskin is the major risk for penile cancer- 9-10 cases per million
- Size does not affect adequate sexual function
- Females stimulation
- No relation to other parts of the body or ethnic background
- Impossible to enlarge permanently
- Spontaneous ejaculations during sleep
- Onset in puberty
- Occur with changes in hormonal levels
- Adolescents should be taught these are normal
- Can occur with erotic dreams in all males regardless of age.
- Durgs produced from male sex hormones
- May be used from some types of anemia, breast cancer, osteoporsis, endometriosis, angioedma
- Use for nonmedical purposes associated with strokes, myocardial infarctions, and loss of limbs.
- Adverse affects can also include acne, baldness, malignancies, aggressive behavior, and testicular atrophy.
- Withdrawal symptoms include depression and suicidal thoughts
- Most common malignancy in males 20-40
- Symptoms include feeling a hard mass or pain, open sore, urination difficulty, etc.
- 100% curable if caught early
- Perfrom self exam
- Treatment invloves surgery, possibly radiation or chemotherapy
- Fertility is not at risk
- Inflammation of the prostate gland
- Primarily associated with aging
- Caused by a viral or bacterial infection
- Symptoms- backache, cloudy discharge, changes in urination
- Treated with antibiotics or prostatic massage
- Most common cancer in males after skin cancer
- Men over 50 should be screened every year
- Digital rectal exam and blood test/maybe and ultrasound
- If suggests cancer a biospy will be performed
- May have an inherited tendency
- Symptoms-problems with urination/lower back pain/ pelvic pain
- When detected a prostatectomy may be performed-no longer produce semen.
- Early detection and treatment result in 100% five year survival rate
- Decrease in testosterone between the ages of 40 and 55
- May result in decreased sexual function, hot flashes, fatigue, nervousness, headache, and depression
- Testosterone therapy is effective treatment
External Femal Reproductive Organs
- Mons Pubis
- Labia Majora
- Labia Minora
- Urethra Opening
- Vaginal Opening and Hymen
- Bartholin's Glands
Pad of fatty tissue that covers the front of the pubic bone
Outer, heavy folds of skin surrounding the opening of the vagina.
Smaller folds of skin located between the labia majora
Small, highly sensitive, cylindrical body between the labia minora; covered by a hood similiar to the foreskin; contains 2 cavernose bodies.
Tubelike passageway from bladder, midway between the glans of the clitoris and the vaginal opening
The space between the labia minora
Vaginal Opening and Hymen
Also called the vaginal introitus; hymen is a thin membrane that stretches across the vaginal introitus-perforated
Pair of bean shaped glands near labia minora; secrete drops of fluid during arousal
Area between the vaginal opening and the anal opening
- -Mammary Glands
- --Alveoli-milk producing cells
- --Mammary Ducts-store milk
- Fatty Tissue
- -Breasts size
- --Heredity, overall body fat content
- Areola and Nipple
- -Darker skin coloring
- Muscular tube, 4-5 inches
- Between bladder and rectum
- Cervix at one end, opening to outside of body at other end
- Tilted at 45 degree anagle, towards small of the back
- Walls- muscle and mucous membrane (can expand 5x)
- Moderate acidic, provides self-cleaning
- -Do not douche, or use feminine sprays
- Vaginal discharge
- -infections, ovulation
- A hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ, about 3" long, 2" wide at top narrowing to 1/2 to 1" at cervix.
- Prepares each month for a fertilized ovum, supports ovum growth, contracts during delivery
- Three parts:
Uterus: Three Layers of Tissue
- Menstrual cycle, blood lining
- Implantation and development of fertilized egg
- Muscular layer, contractions, fibers constrict to prevent hemorrhaging at end of pregnancy
- Pregnancy= pear to watermelon
- Tubes that extend from near the ovaries to the uterus
- Fimbria are fingerlike projections at the end of each one
- Transports ova to the uterus
- Contractions of the walls create a suction that directs ovum into the fallopian tubes
- Cilia on the inner surface constantly beat to create a current
- Mobile- may move
- Ovum move at 1 inch every 24 hours-viable 24-48 hours.
- Fertilization usually occurs in the upper 2 inches
- Two almond-shaped female glands that produce ova and secrete hormones
- About 1" wide, 1.5" long, 1/4" thick
- Female babies are with 200,000 to 400,000 primary follicles (contain immature ova) which continually degnerate.
- During reproductive years about 375 are developed enough to expel ova.
- At approx. 8 years the pituitary gland increase secretion of FSH; by 10-14 influence of estrogen becomes noticeable.
Menstrual Cycle: Proliferative Phase
- 1st Phase; thickening of endometrium and follicle maturation, ovulation.
- Ovulation is the release of a mature ovum on or about the 14th day
Menstrual Cycle: Secretory/Progestational Phase
- 2nd Phase
- Corpus luteum, a yellow glandular body that is formed in the overy from the follicular remains secretes estrogen and progesterone which led to further thickening of endometrium
Menstrual Cycle: Mentrual Phase
- 3rd Phase
- Corpus Luteum degenerates, homrones descrease sharply, mentstrual flow occurs.
- 1 oz. blood, 1 oz. fluid and lining of uterus expelled
- Can last 2-8 days, average 5 days.
- Cessation of menstrual cycle as part of aging- average age 51
- Ovaries stop producing ovum
- May also occur with surgical removal of ovaries
- Symptoms include hot flahes, decrease in moisture/ elasticity of vagina (less acidic=infections)
- Hot flashes last 1-3 minutes, up to 5x a day for 1 month to 5 years; may occur only at night "night sweats" or in relation to stress
- Other symptoms: insomina, headache, fatigue, itchy skin, numbness of hands/feet, short term memory loss, loss of concentration, anxiety, depression
- Treated with estrogen replacement therapy
Hormone Replacement Therapy
- Most effective for hot flashes, sleep disturbances, depression, and mood swings
- Prevents and treats osteoporosis
- Reduces risk of heart disease and stroke in females over 50
- Beneficial to continued sexual response
- Increased risk of ovarian cancer.
First menstrual bleeding, average age 12, cycle 28 days; may be irregular. 50 % become pregnant in first 6 months if sexually active
Absence of menstruation; may be caused by developmental disorders, stress, dugs, extreme exercise, low body fat, obesity, hormonal supplements; normal during pregnancy and while breastfeeding.
Irregular bleeding; female who is past menarche has 1-6 cycles a year; usually excess androgens is the cause; treatment may by oral contraceptives
- Very painful menstruation; may be caused by uterine contractions, pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs or oral contraceptives may be used for treatment
Abnormally heavy menstrual flow; may be an endocrine disorder or abnomrality of reproductive organs
- Sever physical and psychological symtoms during first 4 days of cycle
- Affects 3-7%
- --Anxiety, insomnia, depression, anger
- --Breast pain, fluid retention, nausea, dizziness, increased appetite, weight gain, headaches
- -Hormone therpay, vitamins, exericse, dietary changes, counseling, and peer support
Toxic Shock Syndrome
- Infection: S. aureus
- -Life threatening
- --kidney or liver failure
- -Sudden onset of high fever, 101-102
- -Headache, sore throat, diarrhea, vomiting, muscle aches, sunburn-like rash
- Risk Factors
- -High absorbency tampons
- -Diaphragms, contraceptive sponge, cervical cap
Breast Self Examination
- A cancer screening process
- -Visually examine
- -Press gently in small circles, searching for lumps
- -Squeeze nipple to look for discharge.
- Should be started after menstruation begins
- If taking oral contraception, examine breasts on day a new pill pack is started; otherwise check a few days after menstruation
- Should be done in the shower or while lying down
- X-ray screening test to detect early stages; lumps that cannot be felt
- Creates an image of breasts tissue
- X-ray screening test to detect early stages
- 40 and over should be screened every year with a mammogram and clinical exam
- 20-39 should have a clinical exam every 3 years.
Fibrocystic Breast Condition
- cysts and fibroadenoma cause lumpiness and tenderness
- May help to avoid caffeine and dietary fat.
lump formed when fluid is trapped in a lymph duct
swelling and tenderness of the breast during menstrual cycle
sac that is formed when fluid becomes trapped in a lymph duct
- Malignant tumors in breast tissue
- Warning signs:
- -changes in nipple or symmetry of breasts
- -dark or bloody discharge
- -nipple drawn inward
Breasts Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment
- Needle aspiration- try to draw fluid from lump
- If no fluid, a biopsy is done; can be done with a needle
- Mastectomy-radical, modified, total, partial; depends on how invasive the cancer is.
- Lumpectomy- lump removed with surrounding tissue and some lympth nodes
- Radiation- for cells not removed by surgery
- Materials surgically implanted to improve size and shape of breasts
- Some concern over the safety of silicone-gel filled implants due to reported symptoms of degenerative auto-immune disorders and the production of antibodies to a woman's own collagen
- Some concern about risk of cancer from saline implants
- 73% with saline implants experience side effects; complications include loss of breast senstation, asymmetrical breasts, capsular contraction; some complication are painful and disfiguring
Uterine and Cervical Cancer
- Cancer of the uterus most common cancer of the female gential tract; cause is unknown
- 15,000 develop cervical cancer a year; may be caused by STD virus
- Pap smear is a screening test for cervical cancer; should be performed every 1-2 years
- If cancer is detected cryosurgery or hysterectomy may be used.
- Cancerous cells and/or malignant tumors in one or both ovaries
- Treatment incldues an oophorectomy, chemo, or radiation or combination.
- Cancerous cells and/ or malignant tumor in the vagine
- Linked to the mother's use of DES, a drug used to treat miscarriage
- Detected through Pap smear
- Treate with chemo, radiation, and/or surgery
- Irritation or inflammation of the vagine usually with a discharge; pH level is altered
- Caused by bacteria, yeast, virus, hormonal changes, allergies
- Can be easily treated and cured with one pill or over the counter medications
- Inflammation of the bladder
- Usually caused by E. coli bacteria
- Symptoms include pain during intercourse, blood or pus in urine, buring during urination, backache, and pelvic pain
- Diagnosed by a urine sample
- Treated with antibiotics
- Endometrial tissue grows somewhere other than in the lining of the uterus
- Usually experience painful periods with excessive bleeding
- Can lead to infertility
- Treatment invovles laser surgery to remove tissue
- Women who have this problem are advised to have their children as early as possible
- Inflammation of the uterine lining
- Symptoms include pelvic pain, foul smelling discharge, tenderness, or no symptoms
- Treated with antiobiotics, bed rest, and no sexual intercourse for 2 weeks
- Tube like protrusions that grow from mucous membranes inside the uterus or along the cervix
- Can cause irregular or heavy periods and bleeding between periods
- Treatment is dilation and curettage
Dilation and Curettage
- Surgical procedure in which cervial opening is dilated and a metal loop curette is inserted to scrape uterine lining
- -As a cleaning procedure before gynecological surgery
- -As diagnosis of cancer in uterus and oviducts
- -As diagnosis when there is abnormal bleeding or blood clotting
- -As diagnosis when infertility is suspected
- Health history
- Thyroid palpations
- Breast exam
- Blood tests and blood pressure checks
- Lung tests
- Pelvic exam and pap smear
Refers to our biological femaleness or maleness
A concept that encompasses the psychosocial meanings added to biological maleness or femaleness
Connects the two hemispheres of the brain tends to be thicker in women than in men
Chronological Sequence of Normal Prenatal Differentiation
- Chromosomal Sex
- Gonadal Sex
- Hormonal Sex
- Sex of the internal reproductive structures
- Sex of the external genitals
- Sex differientation of the brain
If an individual is to be a genetic male, he must receive a/an _______ chromosome for his mother and a/an _____ chromosome from his father.
Characteristics of Klinefelter's Syndrome
- Typically sterile, have undersized penises and testes.
- Individuals often have little or no interest in sexual activity
- Tend to be tall and often somewhat feminized in their physical characteristics
- Exhibit breast development and rounded body contours
The condition of androgen insensitivty syndrome is typically diagnosed when _______?
The late adolescent sees a physican to find out why mentruation has not started
In the absence of androgens, the fetus develops _______ structures.
The ____________ of the male is homologous to the labia majora of the female.
What does new research on the treatment of intersexed children recommend?
- Children adapt best when raised according to chromosomal sex .
- Not gender netural at birth.
The protrusion of the contents of one of the body's cavities through an abnromal opening in the cavity wall.
A hernia in which some of the intestine pushes through the inguinal canal into the scrotum.
A circular fold of loose skin that covers the glans of the penis in males who are not circumcised.
Assumptions about how people are likely to behave based on their maleness or femaleness
How one psychologically perceives onself as either male or female
A collection of attitudes and behaviors that are considered normal and appropriate in a specific culture for people of a particular sex.
The male reproductive cell
The female reproductive cell
The 22 pairs of human chromosomes that do not significantly influence sex differentiation.
A single set of chromosomes that influences biological sex determination.
Male gonads inside the scrotum that produce sperm and sex hormones
The male and female sex glands- ovaries and testes.
Female gonads that produce ova and sex hormones
A class of hormones that produce female secondary sex characteristics and affect the menstrual cycle
A class of hormones, including progesterone, that are produced by the ovaries.
A class of hormones that promote the development of male genitals and secondary sex characteristics and influence sexual motivation in both sexes. These hormones are produced by the adrenal glands in males and females and by the testes in males.
A small structure located in the central core of the brain that controls the pituitary gland and regulates motivated behavior and emotional expressions.
The largest part of the brain, consisting of two cerebral hemispheres.
The two sides (right and left) of the cerebrum.
Outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres that is responsible for higher mental processes.
The broad band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres.
A term applied to people who possess biological attributes of both sexes.
Exceedingly rare individuals who have both ovarian and testicular tissue in their bodies; their external genitals are often a mixture of male and female structures.
Individuals who gonads match their chromosomal sex but whoe internal and external reproductive anatomy has a mixture of male and female structures that are incompletely male or female.
A relatively rare condition, characterized by the presence of one unmatched X chromosome (XO), in which affected individuals have normal female external genitals but their internal reproductive structures do not develop fully.
A condition characterized by the presence of two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (XXY) in which affected individuals have undersized external male genitals.
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)
A condition resulting from a genetic defect that causes chromosomally normal males to be insensitive to the action of testosterone and other androgens. These individuals develop female external genitals of normal appearance.
Fetally Androgenized Female
A chromosomally normal (XX) female who, as aresult of excessive exposure to adrogens during prenatal sex differentiation, develops external genitalia resembling those of a male.
DHT- Deficient Male
A chromosomally normal male (XY) who develops external genetlia resembling those of a female as a result of a gentic defect that prevents the prenatal conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
An erection that results from waking up during rapid eye movement (REM) or the dreaming stage of sleep or from having a full bladder.
Digital Rectal Examination
An examination in which the physician inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and examines the prostae and rectum for hard or lumpy.
A test in which a probe inserted into the rectum sends sound waves that create a picture or sonogram on a screen.
An explosive discharge of neuromuscular tensions at the peak of sexual response and is marked by rhythmic contractions and a sense of physiological and psychological release.
An ejaculation in which semen is expelled into the bladder instead of out of the penis.
- A biological process
- A social-learning process
Biological Process: Typical Prenatal Differentation
- Chromosomal Sex
- Normal Human cells
- Sex chromosomes differs
- An XY match produces a male child
- Gene on the X and Y chromosomes that is crucial in intiating development of sex structures.
- Differentiation in gonads (ovaries/testes)
- Once the gonads are developed they being releasing their own sex hormones
- Hormones produced by the gonads go directly into the bloodstream.
- Adrenal glands in both sexes also secrete sex hormones.
Ovaries produce 2 classes of hormones
- Progestational compounds
Testes produce hormone products called androgens
Sex of Internal Reproductive Structures
- by 8 weeks 2 duct systems stimulated by hormones begin to differentiate into internal structures.
- Wolffian ducts
- Mullerian Ducts
Sex of the External Genitals
- External genitals undifferentiated until the 6th week.
- Genital tissues develop depending on the the presence or absence of a testosterone product called DHT.
- Presence of DHT stimulates development of male genitals/absence=female
- By 12th week the differentiation process is complete.
Sex Differentiation of the Brain
- Important structuarl and functional differences
- Males brains larger
- In females, the hypothalamus develops specialized receptor cells sensitive to estrogen.
Atypical Prenatal Differentiation
- Term more commonly used today is intersexed
- Turner's Syndrome
- 45 rather than 46 chromosomes
- Develop normal external genitals, but internal structures do not fully develop-ovaries absent or streaks of tissue.
- Female gender identity normally established.
Disorders Affecting Prenatal Hormonal Processes: Androgen Insensitivty Syndrome
- Normal looking female genitals and a shallow vagina
- Usually raised as females
Disorders Affecting Prenatal Hormonal Processes: Fetally Androgenized Females
- Chromosomally normal females masculinized by exposure to excessive androgens from malfunctioning of adrenal glands.
- Enlarged clitoris can look like a penis and fused labia can resemble scrotum
- Usually identified as female.
Disorders Affecting Prenatal Hormonal Processes: DHT- Deficient Males
- Testes do not descent, the penis and scrotum remain undeveloped, a shallow vagina is partially formed.
- Puberty accelerated testosterone causes a rapid transformation.