-Press gently in small circles, searching for lumps
-Squeeze nipple to look for discharge.
Should be started after menstruation begins
If taking oral contraception, examine breasts on day a new pill pack is started; otherwise check a few days after menstruation
Should be done in the shower or while lying down
X-ray screening test to detect early stages; lumps that cannot be felt
Creates an image of breasts tissue
X-ray screening test to detect early stages
40 and over should be screened every year with a mammogram and clinical exam
20-39 should have a clinical exam every 3 years.
Fibrocystic Breast Condition
cysts and fibroadenoma cause lumpiness and tenderness
May help to avoid caffeine and dietary fat.
lump formed when fluid is trapped in a lymph duct
swelling and tenderness of the breast during menstrual cycle
sac that is formed when fluid becomes trapped in a lymph duct
Malignant tumors in breast tissue
-changes in nipple or symmetry of breasts
-dark or bloody discharge
-nipple drawn inward
Breasts Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment
Needle aspiration- try to draw fluid from lump
If no fluid, a biopsy is done; can be done with a needle
Mastectomy-radical, modified, total, partial; depends on how invasive the cancer is.
Lumpectomy- lump removed with surrounding tissue and some lympth nodes
Radiation- for cells not removed by surgery
Materials surgically implanted to improve size and shape of breasts
Some concern over the safety of silicone-gel filled implants due to reported symptoms of degenerative auto-immune disorders and the production of antibodies to a woman's own collagen
Some concern about risk of cancer from saline implants
73% with saline implants experience side effects; complications include loss of breast senstation, asymmetrical breasts, capsular contraction; some complication are painful and disfiguring
Uterine and Cervical Cancer
Cancer of the uterus most common cancer of the female gential tract; cause is unknown
15,000 develop cervical cancer a year; may be caused by STD virus
Pap smear is a screening test for cervical cancer; should be performed every 1-2 years
If cancer is detected cryosurgery or hysterectomy may be used.
Cancerous cells and/or malignant tumors in one or both ovaries
Treatment incldues an oophorectomy, chemo, or radiation or combination.
Cancerous cells and/ or malignant tumor in the vagine
Linked to the mother's use of DES, a drug used to treat miscarriage
Detected through Pap smear
Treate with chemo, radiation, and/or surgery
Irritation or inflammation of the vagine usually with a discharge; pH level is altered
Caused by bacteria, yeast, virus, hormonal changes, allergies
Can be easily treated and cured with one pill or over the counter medications
Inflammation of the bladder
Usually caused by E. coli bacteria
Symptoms include pain during intercourse, blood or pus in urine, buring during urination, backache, and pelvic pain
Diagnosed by a urine sample
Treated with antibiotics
Endometrial tissue grows somewhere other than in the lining of the uterus
Usually experience painful periods with excessive bleeding
Can lead to infertility
Treatment invovles laser surgery to remove tissue
Women who have this problem are advised to have their children as early as possible
Inflammation of the uterine lining
Symptoms include pelvic pain, foul smelling discharge, tenderness, or no symptoms
Treated with antiobiotics, bed rest, and no sexual intercourse for 2 weeks
Tube like protrusions that grow from mucous membranes inside the uterus or along the cervix
Can cause irregular or heavy periods and bleeding between periods
Treatment is dilation and curettage
Dilation and Curettage
Surgical procedure in which cervial opening is dilated and a metal loop curette is inserted to scrape uterine lining
-As a cleaning procedure before gynecological surgery
-As diagnosis of cancer in uterus and oviducts
-As diagnosis when there is abnormal bleeding or blood clotting
-As diagnosis when infertility is suspected
Blood tests and blood pressure checks
Pelvic exam and pap smear
Refers to our biological femaleness or maleness
A concept that encompasses the psychosocial meanings added to biological maleness or femaleness
Connects the two hemispheres of the brain tends to be thicker in women than in men
Chronological Sequence of Normal Prenatal Differentiation
Sex of the internal reproductive structures
Sex of the external genitals
Sex differientation of the brain
If an individual is to be a genetic male, he must receive a/an _______ chromosome for his mother and a/an _____ chromosome from his father.
Characteristics of Klinefelter's Syndrome
Typically sterile, have undersized penises and testes.
Individuals often have little or no interest in sexual activity
Tend to be tall and often somewhat feminized in their physical characteristics
Exhibit breast development and rounded body contours
The condition of androgen insensitivty syndrome is typically diagnosed when _______?
The late adolescent sees a physican to find out why mentruation has not started
In the absence of androgens, the fetus develops _______ structures.
The ____________ of the male is homologous to the labia majora of the female.
What does new research on the treatment of intersexed children recommend?
Children adapt best when raised according to chromosomal sex .
Not gender netural at birth.
The protrusion of the contents of one of the body's cavities through an abnromal opening in the cavity wall.
A hernia in which some of the intestine pushes through the inguinal canal into the scrotum.
A circular fold of loose skin that covers the glans of the penis in males who are not circumcised.
Assumptions about how people are likely to behave based on their maleness or femaleness
How one psychologically perceives onself as either male or female
A collection of attitudes and behaviors that are considered normal and appropriate in a specific culture for people of a particular sex.
The male reproductive cell
The female reproductive cell
The 22 pairs of human chromosomes that do not significantly influence sex differentiation.
A single set of chromosomes that influences biological sex determination.
Male gonads inside the scrotum that produce sperm and sex hormones
The male and female sex glands- ovaries and testes.
Female gonads that produce ova and sex hormones
A class of hormones that produce female secondary sex characteristics and affect the menstrual cycle
A class of hormones, including progesterone, that are produced by the ovaries.
A class of hormones that promote the development of male genitals and secondary sex characteristics and influence sexual motivation in both sexes. These hormones are produced by the adrenal glands in males and females and by the testes in males.
A small structure located in the central core of the brain that controls the pituitary gland and regulates motivated behavior and emotional expressions.
The largest part of the brain, consisting of two cerebral hemispheres.
The two sides (right and left) of the cerebrum.
Outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres that is responsible for higher mental processes.
The broad band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres.
A term applied to people who possess biological attributes of both sexes.
Exceedingly rare individuals who have both ovarian and testicular tissue in their bodies; their external genitals are often a mixture of male and female structures.
Individuals who gonads match their chromosomal sex but whoe internal and external reproductive anatomy has a mixture of male and female structures that are incompletely male or female.
A relatively rare condition, characterized by the presence of one unmatched X chromosome (XO), in which affected individuals have normal female external genitals but their internal reproductive structures do not develop fully.
A condition characterized by the presence of two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (XXY) in which affected individuals have undersized external male genitals.
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)
A condition resulting from a genetic defect that causes chromosomally normal males to be insensitive to the action of testosterone and other androgens. These individuals develop female external genitals of normal appearance.
Fetally Androgenized Female
A chromosomally normal (XX) female who, as aresult of excessive exposure to adrogens during prenatal sex differentiation, develops external genitalia resembling those of a male.
DHT- Deficient Male
A chromosomally normal male (XY) who develops external genetlia resembling those of a female as a result of a gentic defect that prevents the prenatal conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
An erection that results from waking up during rapid eye movement (REM) or the dreaming stage of sleep or from having a full bladder.
Digital Rectal Examination
An examination in which the physician inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and examines the prostae and rectum for hard or lumpy.
A test in which a probe inserted into the rectum sends sound waves that create a picture or sonogram on a screen.
An explosive discharge of neuromuscular tensions at the peak of sexual response and is marked by rhythmic contractions and a sense of physiological and psychological release.
An ejaculation in which semen is expelled into the bladder instead of out of the penis.